عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the difficult issues about "Natural Epics" such as Shahname, is understanding their composition. Natural Epics have been produced and developed in the absence of their original authors. The text of epic in these narratives, as the continual author's absence scope, is the fluid field of displacements, interferences and intertextual transfers between plural narratives. The author of this kind of epics is originally identical to the reader and like "Historical Reader" is faced with precomposed narrative texts or oral narratives and based on these narratives has narrated the epic story again. The similarity of roles and functions of the epic composer as well as roles and functions of the historical reader led to considering the narrating of natural epic as a kind of "reading".
In this article, mechanisms and processes affecting the genesis of epic narratives have been analyzed based on "narrative competence". Our analysis was based on two hypotheses: 1) Historical author is absent in the process of composing natural epics. 2) Reading has a fundamental role in the reconfiguration of natural epic narratives.
The narrative ability is based on various processes and mechanisms. One of these processes is the principle of double contradictions. Given the human perceptual structure in recognizing affairs based on the creation of mutual relations, a network of dual contradictions shape the narrative structure of stories, and propel the narrative of the story forward and the movement of meaning in its layers is subject to the creation of duplication in the structure of the text's narrative. A process in the development of the epic narrative is summarization, which is one of the examples of standardizing the text. This process, inferred from the epic narrative recapitulation, provides a framework for its structure and meaning by cohering and generalizing the narrative text, narration, and narrative outline, in particular, when epic narratives are the product of the pattern-based mentality, and in the process of reading and recounting the narrative from the epic composer, the narrative’s comprehension and its redefinition in the modern narrative continues to be based on the same fundamental patterns and phrases. However, besides the main minima of the narrative, other elements and codes also enter the text of the epic narrative as a result of the intellectual and cultural changes of society. Accordingly, the formation and evolution of the epic narrative in Iran has been closely linked to the intellectual and cultural developments in the Iranian society, but in any case, pattern-based plots are still preserved in the mythical structure of most epic narratives.
In another view, reading and reconfiguring an epic narrative is a function of the opposite proportion of story and discourse. In this contradictory logic, the development of meaning in narration can be either the result of past events and actions in the story, or can be influenced by the particular system in the narrative discourse, as meaning can take on a particular form that is contrary to the actual course of events in the story. Some historical narratives gradually found a mythical structure in the course of numerous readings and reconfigurations of various periods, due to the overthrow of mythological and pattern-based mentality. Sometimes, during the epic narrative recapitulation, the epic composer tends to find that, in certain contexts of a story that moves from one state to another, there is a kind of surprise and suspension caused by the transformation of the state as well as the transition from ignorance to consciousness of creation. In such a way, that action or state becomes a necessity or, depending on its probability, an action or a counter-act (= transformation).Therefore, a mere transfer of ignorance takes place (= deflation) that may turn hostility into friendship and vice versa. The type and method of using these techniques is also one of the tools used in the epic narrative recapitulation and rehearsing in particular places of narrative.
The epic composer's ability to narrate and reconfigure is based on his "narrative ability", since in the face of existing narratives, he can recognize their validity and, at a more advanced stage, reconfigure narratives in the form of other narratives. This narrative ability is also based on the various processes and mechanisms. The results of this paper show that the principles of binary oppositions, summarization and reconfiguration, the clash of story and discourse as well as transformation and recognition have all important role in the genesis of epic narratives.