عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the prominent literary theories that have enabled a new reading of texts is discourse analysis theory. This theory has its roots in linguistics, and its term was first coined in 1952 by Zellig Harris. Following him, discourse analysis was divided by linguists into two parts: "Spoken Language Structure Analysis" and "Text Analysis". The discourse analysis theory, by Fairclough, named "Critical Discourse Analysis" took a new direction. Critical Discourse Analysis seeks to expose the ideologies hidden in the text, in the audience’s mind, and in the context of the text and the relation of the three to each other. For its theory, Fairclough provided an analytical model that is considered one of the most comprehensive analytical models. It examines discourses at three levels of description, interpretation, and explanation, and this way, it explores and explains the relationship between text, power, and ideology. Travelogues and memoirs are among the highlights of the critique works whose keywords are power and ideology. The present article attempts to assess and analyze "Constitutionalism" as one of the major discourses in "Haj Sayyah’s Memories" book based on Fairclough's theory.
Review of Literature and Theoretical Framework
In its model, Fairclough combines three analytical methods and traditions: 1. Inclusive textual analysis in the context of linguistics (Halliday's applied grammar); 2. Social practice analysis in macro context (Foucault's theory); 3. Social practice analysis in micro context (conversation analysis). In order to apply his theory to the text, he presented a model that examined discourse in three stages of description, interpretation, and explanation. In the description stage, he examines the language of the work at two levels of vocabulary and grammar, and at each level, he considers three types of empirical, relational, and expressive values. In the grammar section, in addition to the aforementioned types, the link values are also of interest. In the interpretation stage (contextual knowledge or ideological aspect of common sense-based assumptions), two sections of contextual interpretation and textual interpretation are considered by Fairclough. And in the explanation stage, social implications and determinants of discourse are examined.
The method of this study was based on Fairclough's theory. The main purpose of the theory under consideration was to examine the relationship between text, power, and ideology. Every text had micro-discourses and macro-discourses that made up its content. Constitutionalism was a macro-discourse in the memories of Haaj Sayyah that was studied in this research in three stages of description, interpretation and explanation. At the descriptive level, linguistic features were extracted and analyzed at two levels of vocabulary and grammar so that their interpretive function would help to analyze the context and text at a higher level. Finally, the interplay between text and social factors at the explanation stage was reviewed.
Results and Discussion
In the description stage, it was observed that in Haj Sayyah's Travelogue, the empirical values revealed at the lexical level the text content, knowledge, beliefs, and ideology of the author mostly by the selection of the synonym words, the use of vernacular pronunciation of certain names, and the use of social indicators. In the commentary stage, the author dealt with the story, participants, their relationships, and the role of language in advancing the story. One of the most important issues in this work was the events related to the Iranian constitutional movement in the late Qajar period. The narrator in this section of his book described the self-devotions and sacrifices of the constitutionalists and the atrocities of the antagonists.In the contextual interpretation stage, the discourse participants' interpretation of the situational and intertextual context, the type of discourse, and the differences in the participants' response to them were examined at four levels of word appearance, word meaning, local cohesion, and text structure.
At the explanatory level, discourse was examined as part of a social process. The social situation or environment that led to the development of the constitutional and freedom seeking discourse in Iran during the Qajar era was rooted in the oppression and inadequacy of Qajar rulers. During the reign of Nasser ad-Din Shah, Iran had become a backward and poor country that was increasingly favored by the arrogant powers such as Russia and Britain. Taken together, these factors caused deep discontent among the masses, especially the new intellectual class and the traditional middle class.
The author's being on the side of the constitutionalists made use of all levels and layers of language and semantic to support this sociopolitical trend and to repress the opposition and oppressors. Studying this work at three levels of description, interpretation and explanation, showed the unity of all linguistic and non-linguistic elements in highlighting the constitution macro-discourse and expressed his view in advocating the constitutionalists and freedom seekers. At the descriptive level, the words used contained empirical values of constitutional and freedom seeking discourse, and he used a variety of semantic relations to this end. In this work, the words were used to denounce and criticize the opposition rather than being an indication of euphemism. Conceptual metaphors were also used to praise the constitutional revolution. At grammar level, the narrator, the constitutionalists, and the despots were triple contributors to the work in which everything fits into and becomes meaningful in this triplex. The high frequency of the indicative mood reflected the knowledge of the writer/omniscient narrator of current affairs. And finally, at the interpretation and explanation levels, we observed that the constitution macro-discourse gave the different contexts of the text the color of constitutionalism and freedom seeking and drew all the audience’s attention to it.