عنوان مقاله [English]
The study of literary works from the science of psychology is a new method, which can be used to reveal the hidden layers of literary work. Shahnameh is the most important and most authentic mythic, epic, and historical document. The work that has been the product of Iranian's subconscious over the centuries whose stories tend to reinterpret and reproduce meaning over the time. The authors have tried to analyze Kaykavos' character (one of the greatest Kiani's kings in Shahnameh). From a psychological point of view, it is based on the analytical-descriptive method. This article mentions the characteristics of the paranoid disorder based on the most authoritative psychoanalysis book. That is Diagnostic Manual of Psychiatric Disorder (DSM), being compiled by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the latest version of which has been used.
This research is based on the analytical-descriptive method using library studies.
Paranoia is a psycho-psychological term, which in essence, refers to a kind of intellectual disturbance or delusions, including pessimism, jealousy, self-esteem, or delusions and injuries. In psychology, it is a technical term that means having beliefs and misconceptions about others. The person has suspicion and mistrust, excessive sensitivity, and emotional responses that are limited. DSM has diagnosed the paranoid states with seven symptoms four of which should at least be observed in people with this disorder. Caring for the behavior of Kaykavos regarding the symptoms of paranoid disorder, five signs of seven signs can be identified.
The first time in the story that refers to the suspicion of Kaykavos, is Siavash's speech about his father's suspicion. In the ensuing events, he shows more of his own suspicions.
One of the obvious cases of this suspicion and falsehood is apparent in his behavior with Siavash. Before the advent of Soodabeh's love to Siavash, Kaykavos repeatedly tested his son. Siavash proved that he is a gentleman and a chaste. However, Kaykavos could not trust Siavash with confidence. Even though he smelled Siavash's dress and he did not find any trace of Soodabe's perfume on it, the suspicion vanished just by testing Siavash throughout the fire.
In this story, despite the fact that there was a big deal and Siavash was accused, Kaykavos was worried about his dignity as he feared that among his wife and son one of them may become a disgrace, thus, no one would merit Kaykavos as a king any more. He thought of his credibility and reputation and was not worried about the psychological and social harm. Even after proving Siavash's innocence, he did not treat Siavash properly. So, Siavash went away with the pretext of going to the war. He got away from his father and his conspirator wife, Soodabeh.
Following Siavash's psychological escape from the king's court towards the battle with Afrasiab, in the first days of the war, destiny made Afrasyab refuse to continue the battle and make a peace with Siavash. The least benefit of this peace was that fewer people would be killed. The enemy retreated with his will, and gave concessions to the Iranians. Therefore, there was no logical reason to continue the war and bloodshed. But Kaykavos strongly opposed reconciliation. Instead of rejoicing such an easy victory, he was worried that he might be insulted. Kaykavos thought they have contracted on peace without consulting with him therefore he thought it was so insulting to his majesty. He was also strongly influenced by his thoughts. In the attack to Mazandaran, the sudden decision of the thoughtless without any consultation with the elderlies of the court, was a small instance of the same self-serving behaviors. The self-righteousness of the king and the refusal to accept the views of others caused the elders of the court to send a messenger to Zal and tried to dissuade the king from this thought. On the basis of Paranoid disease, Kaykavos not only did not stop attacking to Mazandaran but also humiliated Zal.
This is not the only case that imprudent Kaykavos did not realize the goodwill of others. He was captured in the Hamavaran because he was disobedient and highly relied on his own interpretation of events. This caused him not to pay any attention to Soodabeh's words which warned him of his father's pobable conspiracy.
People with a paranoid disorder do not tolerate abuse or humiliation and react strongly to it. They are not able to forgive others outrage. Little outrage create a lot of hostility and the disgusting feelings continue in them for a long time. In the aftermath of Rustam's delay to come to Kaykavos' court, Kaykavos considered Rustam to insult him. He was very angry. The anger was so much that despised Rustam and ordered him to depose. Excessive anger showed severe anxiety and uncontrollable agitation. He was terribly angry with Rustam who had saved his life three times. Rustam was such a person who was always ready to sacrifice himself for the king, but he never owe him.
The storytellers of Shahnameh have cited Sohrab's story after showing the peak of Rustam's loyalty and reverence to save Kaykavos life. This picture of Rustam is to see Kaykavos' unpleasant behavior in dealing with the problem of Rustam and the death of his child. Kaykavos did not give Rustam Nushdaro on the basis of the suspicion that he had at the most sensitive moments. He caught her into the tribulation of her child's death. He was seduced by the fact that Rustam, under the backing of Sohrab, wanted to take kingdom over from him. His disturbing words showed that he is doubtful about loyalty of Rustam and is pessimistic about him. He blamed Rustam for Siavash's peace. Not only wasn't Kaykavos grateful to him, but also he blamed him. Kaykavos thought Rustam persuaded Syavash to agree on peace with afrasyab. He accused Rustam that he thinks only about wealth and assets and this pessimistic view can express the inner doubt of the king against Rustam.
Kaykavos is the son of Kayghobad. He is a great king in the Shahnameh. His characteristic is not similar to his father's. He was under the influence of id. He was suspicious as he thought that others want to injure him. He was hesitant and suspicious and thought his friends are not loyal and reliable, thus, he withdrew from Siavash's peace. These show that he was suffering from a paranoid disorder.