عنوان مقاله [English]
Iran's culture should not be reduced in the context of modern political boundaries. Some researchers believe in a range called "Cultural Iran” that has been widespread from the eastern Mediterranean coast to East China. Written works existing in two languages have to be accounted and researched in Iranian Literature: Iranian languages and the other languages such as Arabic that include many products of Iranian poets and writers. Just by understanding all aspects of Iranian culture, identification crisis would have reasonable representation. In this study, with the introduction of cat and mouse and Almas Khan Kandoolei, the researchers try to make the readers familiar with one of the branches of culture, the Hawrami literature.
The analytical method is used in this paper and is based on library resources. First the manuscript are edited and translated and then the poet, manuscripts, poems, criticism and theme analysis (content, structure and narrative, characters, scenery and characterization, dialogue and language Review and humor) will be introduced and considered.
3. Results and Discussion
Almas Khan Kandoolei, Cat and Mouse's poet, is one of the greatest Hawrami poets that was born in Kermanshah, Kandoole. Cat and Mouse poem has three versions: 1. version of Berlin. 2. The first version of the House. 3. The second version of the House. It’s a short description of the events that took place in a four-year-old Ashraf Afghan government in Iran, Nader manifestation, his Battle with Afghan and overthrowing their government. In this work the author seeks to describe Iranian wars, usurpations and destructions and then illustrates Nader and Ashraf battles. "Cat and Mouse" known as an allegorical and historical Hawrami poem, is in fact the story of a battle in the Afghan Period attack to Iran and Nader's manifestation. A series of events constructing the structure of Cat and Mouse is around the resentments and anger rising from the aggression of foreign people to Iran. In this story, the mouse is a symbol of an alien nation that unjustly attacked Iran and must be eliminated. By accepting the cats to support the diamond, the master node of the story opens and other obstacles in the way of the mice picks out of the way by Almaskhan leadership. In the story, the author faces all the characters, and he himself is as someone who is seen as much less in war; but is the commander of the war. That is why the historical context is notable and is very important for readers. In the story, characters and heroes are victorious or dead, like male mouse that died or cat’s king and Almas Khan which won. In the story, the events were described accurately and alive, and the combination of events is different. The narrator tells the story generally in first person, and because he himself plays a role in the story and in other words is a hero, admission of the events is easier for the reader.
Regarding social stratification of the characters of the story, we can say that the majority of people are from the top floor of community as the kings, princes and captains. The main characters of the story, the narrator (Almaskhan), King Cat (Nader) and King of mice (Ashraf Afghan) and male mouse, are of princes and captains. Almaskhan as the hero of his story is a resourceful, experienced and strong-willed character. In addition the scene element in the story of cat and mouse has a special place. The story takes place in two ways scenery. On the one hand, there is a narrator, who sometimes depicts scenes. On the other hand sometimes the narrator lets the characters portray the scenes. In the story of cat and mouse, the dialogue element is functional and is completely far from entertainment and makeup. So that in fact it can be considered as an integral part of g the story.
The hawrami Cat and Mouse poem has political and social themes which portray humorously the course of events and the Afghan attack on Iran, the fall of the Safavids, the emergence of Nadir Shah and his conquers. In this poem, King Cat is the symbol of Nadir Shah Afshar, mice king is a symbol of Ashraf Afghan, male mouse is a symbol of Afghan army commander, Mullah Ibrahim is a symbol of Shah Sultan Hossein Safavi, Bayaz is a symbol of legacy of the Safavid period and at last Almaskhan, himself is a symbol of a real patriotic person who does anything to save Iran. Although Iranian Cat-and-Mouse story is of family of stories and tales which follow the symbolic language of animals like “Panchatantra”,” Marzbannameh” and” thousand and one night”, considered as representative of Hawrami literature that consists of valuable examples of the first to the thirteenth century of Persian literature .Besides the other similarities in poems like Persian and Arabic Mouse and Cat, this story has special features which separate it from its counterparts. Not only the mice are not representatives of the poor and oppressed people but also they are representative of looters who have attacked unjustly the other land and should be destroyed.