تحلیل سفر روحانی ویراف در ارداویراف‌نامه بر اساس الگوی کمبل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی.

نویسندگان

دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

معراج‌نامه‌ها از گونه‌های کهن در ادب دینی هستند و نمونه‌های کمابیش مشابهی در فرهنگ‌های جهان دارند. ارداویراف‌نامه مفصل‌ترین معراج‌نامۀ مزدایی است که داستان سفر روحانی ویراف به جهان دیگر و بازگشت پیروزمندانة وی را گزارش کرده‌ است. به باور جوزف کمبل، سفر قهرمان در متون روایی همة ملت‌های جهان از ساختار واحد و مشابهی برخوردار است که بر آمده از ناخودآگاه جمعی است. اهمیّت این پژوهش تلاش برای تجلّی مؤلفه‌های فرهنگ پیشین ایرانی در چنین آثاری با تکیه بر نظریه‌های پذیرفتة جهانی است که با هدف تبیین مراحل سفر قهرمان (ویراف) در ارداویراف‌نامه بر اساس الگوی کمبل با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده و دستاورد پژوهش حاکی است که سفر ویراف با مراحل سه‌گانة (عزیمت، تشرّف و بازگشت) سفر قهرمان در الگوی کمبل تا حدودی هم‌خوانی دارد و در مواردی از زیرگونه‌های هفده‌گانه فاقد معادل است که دلیل آن نوع نگرش به سیمای قهرمان در ساحت هدف‌های دینی و اسطوره‌ای و نیز تفاوت بنیادین موضوع معراج با سفر قهرمان است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of Viraf’s Spiritual Journey in Ardavirafname Based on thePattern of Campbell

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khalil Baygzade
  • Ehsan Zanditalab
Razi University
چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
The main foundation of mythical or archetypal criticism was made after the studies of Carl Gustav Jung on unconscious, myth and archetype. In fact, the appearance of archetype in his thought was inspired by unconscious discovery of Sigmund Freud. In his opinion, archetype covers six seventh of soul which is believed to be the result of mental suppression. Analyzing Freud’s conscious concept carefully, Jung criticized the unconscious concept, a personal and limited concept in Freud’s opinion, and discovered the other aspects of unconscious. He classified unconscious into 3 parts in which he mostly talked about unconscious in term of religion and mythical stories which are believed to be in common among people. Thus, the unconscious is considered as a concept which not only is the result of mental process but also is inherited unconsciously. Jung called these countless symbols and images of collective unconscious “archetype”. He believed that this term has been used several times in other’s works (Jung, 2011, p. 16, 20). His theories about collective unconscious, myth and archetype from the 30s to50s inspired scholars such asJoseph Campbell,leading to a system of criticism called archetype or mythic. The aforesaid theory assumes that the readout and analysis of literary texts is similar deep structure. Joseph Campbell, working on narrative stories based on the hero journey, has published a pattern to explain a universal pattern of a story in The Hero with Thousand Faces. In this book, he illustrates a pattern which has a unique and repetitive form in all stories including 3 steps and 17 subtitles.


2. Methodology
The analysis of literary texts based on universal theories is a new approach in text interpretation trying to recognize hidden layers in a new perspective. The current study is trying to analyzethe spiritual journey of Ardaviraf Nameh based on the single myth pattern of Campbell. As a matter of fact, it wants to test the ability of Campbell’sapproach to analyze and explain the religious stories of Persian literary texts. Thus, the structure of hero journey in Ardaviraf Name is carried out based on Campbell pattern in a descriptive-analytical approach.
3. The Pattern of Hero Journey in Ardaviraf Name
he journey starts when the hero’s individual or ethnicity need makes him sacrifice himself for a moral goal.
3-1-1. Invitation for a Journey
A wonderful voice makes the hero drag himself out ofhis deep typical life. This starting voice in Ardaviraf Nameis the moan and roar of helpless people and the plea of religion-recipe.
3-1-2. Rejecting the Invitation
The fear of the unknowns and the effort to maintain the current situation make the hero not accept the invitation. Besides,psychologically, his instinct to preserve life stops him from travelling. Viraf delays the journey acceptance by proposing a religious test. However, rejecting the invitation can also be regarded as a religious challenge to reveal the correctness of his choice to everyone.
3-1-3. HiddenRelief
The hero’s journey is always accompanied with hidden powers reflecting a wise saint archetype. In Ardaviraf, Viraf is accompanied with SoroushAhlo and Azareizadthrough the unknown world.
3-1-4. Passing through the First Door
Although the hero’s journey starts with his birth along with the invitation voice, what the unknown world opens in front of him is passing through the first door. Surprisingly, there is no barrier for Viraf, and no blocking power stops him.


3-1-5- Whale Abdomen
This level is the symbol of human transfer to the other world in which Viraf enters by drinking cannabis and overcominghisartificial sleep.
3-2. Being Honored
Going through the whale abdomen diverts the horizon of the events tothe other side; a series of tests and successive meetings. The hero achieves his goal and immortality at the end of this level.
3-2-1. The Road of Tests
The hero is supposed to win a series of problems, overcome his fear and pass terrible events and images to achieve his goal. Viraf has been supported by 2 guardian goddesses through this level.
3-2-2. Meeting with a Goddess
This level is a reflection of the female soul power of the hero which is called Anima by Jung. Viraf does not visit the goddess, but he reports the visit of his ancestors.
3-2-3. Woman in the Tempting Role
In Campbell pattern, the tempting woman is the negative and dark side of Anima anda complementary level to visit the goddess. In fact, the hero visits the darkness and brightness as a part of himself. Like the previous level, Viraf does not visit the tempting woman, but he reports the visit of the ancestors.
3-2-4.Reconciliation and Collaboration with Father
This level is the last one in the process of individualevolution which Jung calls conscious effort of I to get acquainted with self. Undoubtedly, Viraf’s ascension has been a wonderful experience in the process of spirit evolution which has no equivalence in Ardaviraf. As if Vriaf’s devotion to the rules of religion puts him to complete reconciliation with Ahura Mazda.
5-2-3. Gods
When the hero reaches this level, beyond the stupidity and fear, he finds a god-like face. This level is full of Ahura Mazda’s brightness. Unique commemoration of Ahura Mazda is a sign which shows his likeness to gods and goddesses.

6-2-3. The Final Blessing
The hero’s journey is completed by achieving his goal which is a blessing for him and his family. In fact, he aims at messaging from the living world to the dead world. This goal is achieved by travelling to the unknowns and seeing the barren, paradise, and hell. This goal is the knowledge which survives faith and removes doubts.
3-3. Return
When the hero achieves his goal, he is supposed to come back to his routine life, whether he likes it or not. In fact, he should be the hero of his lifewhich shows the hero’s social performance.
3-3-1. Refuse to Return
The hero’s attachment to the unknown world, on the one hand, and his suspicion to transferability of his wonderful experiences, on the other hand, stops him to return. However, he does not care due to his social goal. In fact, he wants to convey Ahura Mazda’s message to Mazdisnas and tries to remove their doubts and fears.
3-3-2. Magical Escape
Faced with difficulties, he should win the hardships of the way back, but he does not face any obstacles. Thus, he does not need the help of the goddesses through his journey. He passes the journey easily.
3-3-3. A Rescue from outside
If the hero was not able to return, a rescue power would have helped him. Through his journey, Viraf has always remembered his messaging role, so he gets orders directly from Ahura Mazda in the way back.
3-3-4. Crossing the Return Door
This level is an effort to match and perceive two apparently conflicting worlds which, in spite of their conflicts, are two aspects of a unique fact. Although Viraf is not the one that used to be before travelling, he can share the findings and experiences of his journey.
3-3-5. The King of Two Worlds
The hero’s return does not interrupt his separation from the unknown world; he dominates both worlds. Even though he will not go to ascension, he becomes the king of two worlds due to the deep effect of his journey on the goddesses’territory, visiting the unknown dimension of his soul and presence in the wonderful heaven.
3-3-6. Free in Life
The hero continues his routine life to his death. If he has a social responsibility, he will offer his souvenir, saving his nation, to his descends. The spiritual experience of ascension has made an incredible change in Viraf’s soul, motivating him to continue his life virtuously.
4. Conclusion
The major lines of the story are in accordance with Campbell’s pattern, although, in his pattern, crossing the first door in the departure, reconciliation with father inthe stage of being honored and refusing to return, magical escape and the saving hand in the return stage do not match with the hero’s journey in Ardaviraf. Besides, the hidden relief in a special period of the journey and the quality of meeting with the dark and light sides of his soul isquestionable. The first reason for the aforesaid differences is the existence of slight but determinative heterogeneity in the quality of Viraf’s journey compared with the heroicjourneys in mythical texts. This heterogeneity is due to the weakness and strength of the sacred aspectsofboth myth and religion. Therefore, a hero like Viraf feels less doubt and fear at the beginning of his journey and he is supported by a hidden relief. Besides, even if we underestimate these powers to sheer spiritual symbols, their performance in term of an archetype is more trustworthy than helping forces in mythical stories. The unknown is not that much unknown for such heroes,for they know the destination, their activities and how to return without any problems. However, a mythical hero should start a dangerous journey which definitely passes through darkness and loneliness. Continuous tests and the hardship which are passed by the hero alone and in ambiguitywill shake the curve of characteristic change at the end of the journey. In fact, the heroes are not the ones they wereused to be. Besides, the other reason is going beyond the limit of the hero’s journey and explaining it as a book of ascension. In fact, the pattern of a single myth is the foundation of a potential heroic journey which is changed to real heroism by stimulating inner self-abilities and crossing tough levels. Each person is able to experience this heroism as much as he can, but Viraf is the only one who was prone to ascension in Mazdayasna society. Thus, it is predicted that he has passed his heroic journey in advance to getting ready for another journey as a sacred hero.The third reason is related to the extensive individual aspects of Campbell pattern which can be considered as the seamless manifestations of individuality in Jung psychology. Therefore, Viraf’s ascension is an individual experience, although it has a real social performance which is not mainly accounted as an issue or a level in relation with the individuality concept. Accordingly, the features of Viraf’s memoir are considered more transcendentalthan general achievements of mythical heroic journeys in terms of rank and concept. However, he apparently has less heroic reputations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • archetype
  • Joseph Campbell
  • Hero’s Journey
  • Ardavirafname
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