عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
One of the greatest preoccupations in the field of Sociology of Religion is a practical (pragmatic) definition of religion and religiosity which is mostly studied in Social Psychology and can be divided into Sociological Tradition or Collective-Social Tradition and Psychological or Subjective-Individual Tradition. Prior to Glock and Stark, scholars considered different aspects and principles for religion. For example, Erich Fromm emphasized on practical, practical-magical, ritual and semantic aspects of religion; while Wakh’s division was theoretical/mental, practical/behavioral and social/institutional. There were also other scholars who were concerned with four pillars for religion: faith, belief, devotional (worshipping) edicts and political/social edicts. Moreover, there was another group who concentrated on religious experience, recognition, emotion and practice. It was from the early 1960s, that under the influence of such sociologists as Emile Durkheim, religion for the first time was conceived as a multi-dimensional phenomenon, and Watch stressed on three dimensions: theoretical/belief, practical/ritual and collective/societal. In 1965 Glock and Stark attached five dimensions for all the religions in the world: 1. Belief; 2. Ritual; 3. Experimental; 5. Intellectual; 6. Consequential. These five dimensions were accepted by most scholars and were considered to be an appropriate model for studying and doing research on any religion. It is quite axiomatic that religiosity is an important aspect of Hafez’s personality trait which is adaptable to Glock and Stark’s model. The present article was written from this conviction that by applying Glock and Stark’s model to Hafez’s poetry (gazels), one can find that Hafez believed in oneness (monotheism), prophet hood and resurrection. Questing for truth is an important feature of his ritual aspect, suggesting his pragmatism in the obligations of the religious law and spiritual virtues as well as religious positions. His religious experience possesses an insight quality, an intuitive kind of knowledge, which can lead to recognition, faith and hope, thereby culminating in monotheism, content with God’s will, practice of religious duties, participation in religious ceremonies, adornment with spiritual virtues, steadfast faith, amorous servitude, as well as reaching unity and the position of a perfect human, which are the consequences of his religiosity.
Key Words: Practical (pragmatic) definition of religiosity, Glock and Stark, Hafez of Shiraz, religious, ritualistic and experimental aspects.