عنوان مقاله [English]
An investigation into valuable works of Persian literature and works related to literature, politics, psychology, philosophy, and new sciences such as management indicates that literature does not just belong to the area of emotions and taste, but rather it covers a broad scope of sensory experiences based on objective facts.
Since Firdausi's Shahname is a proper context for researchers who are interested in interdisciplinary studies such as literature and management science, particularly human resources, researchers have sought to raise Firdausi's top management attitudes regarding the direct and undeniable relationship of management and culture and introduce it as a significant pattern for today's managers.
Authors have selected descriptive-analytic method for the present study. Exploring some information related to four basic dimensions of management definition and investigation of Maslow's needs pyramid, some verses of Firdausi's Shahname which have had direct relation with raised principles have been selected as evidence to indicate in a scientific and documented way that Firdausi has had a notable attitude toward this new science.
Given the richness of Persian literature, authors have always tried to match the agreed definition of management science from management scholars' point of view with Maslow's needs hierarch pyramid and Firdausi's management patterns in order to investigate the clear and effective relationship between literature and management. An investigation into Firdausi's Shahname indicates that governmental plans of Shahname kings have the scientific features of providence, continuity, flexibility, and time management. Governors' providence-based planning indicates the presence of strategies based on community's discretion which can reflect transformations in the form of a lasting process to achieve goals. The second principle is organization which is implemented through task division, delegation of authorityregarding the expertise of employer, organizational hierarchy and unity of command. In Shahname, everyone knows his/her responsibilities and governors can use existing sources in management system in a correct way. People are selected carefully and social levels are formed in a regular framework. Another principle which is particularly considered by Firdausi is motivation. This attitude is the result of Firdausi's attention to human resources. Respect to human is present all over Shahname. Shahname governors seek to create motivation in people, so that they in turn do their best for community's health. Every manager who wants to be successful in this area has to be aware of human needs. The best pattern in new science is Maslow theory which is matched with Shahname atmosphere. In Shahname, addressing people's primary needs is considered one of governmental tasks and their security as well as peace of mind is considered in kings' programs. Communication and a sense of belonging take place based on respect; so that popular people always want to be more than a simple member. Giving honor and self-confidence to subordinates and financial as well as spiritual rewards are strategies used to increase people's motivation. The last principle is control. This process is associated with ensuring that activities done are matched with planned objectives. Shahname kings continuously get information about their territories. They research about reports received and deal with violators firmly and without bias. Supervision is followed seriously and directly or indirectly based on the time and place. This principle is so important for the kings that sometimes they act themselves to collect information and collected information is never useless. It should be noted that supervision is more focused on close relatives and this is a management advantage in Shahname. These methods lead to fostering of people's potential talents and characters such as Zal, Rostan, Siavash, Piran , and Aghrirath who prefer group benefits to their own live happily and with pride. Firdausi pays attention to other issues such as consultation with wise people, public justice, correct selection based on qualifications along with avoidance of gossipers who lack knowledge and flexibility in order to make his ideal land.
Firdausi has the following pattern in his management strategies:
- Managers should be long-sighted and provident people who see tomorrow from now and who have a broad scope of attitudes.
- They should avoid giving big tasks to small and ignoble people and ask help from efficient and noble people. When the works are done by experts, Gods blesses appear and when works are done by inexperienced and infidels chaos will spread all over the world.
- Social security is due to social justice that can be achieved by having fair and regulated managers at top of organizational pyramid.
- Employees' motivation should be increased in order to perform organizational works better. Fair and thoughtful rewards will lead to better attitudes toward manager and can help in achieving organizational goals.
- Manager's attention to individuals' needs guarantee his success in achieving objectives.
- If managers don’t respect active, freethinking, religious,, and faithful people – even if they don’t agree on some matters- and don’t avoid those who are greedy for office, they won't be able to improve their organizational system.
- They shouldn’t ignore their subordinates, but rather they should respect all human beings as active members.
- They should believe that improvement of knowledge level and wisdom of staff will bring national dignity.