عنوان مقاله [English]
The most frequent word-formation patterns are derivation and compounding processes in Persian language and other processes such as reduplication, conversion, truncation, backformation, clipping, blending, metaphoric extension, and coinage have less contributed to word formation. These processes have often been less investigated compared to derivation and compounding.
Reduplication is one of the most significant processes of word formation in Persian. In this way, all or part of the root is repeated on its left or right side, sometimes associated with added parts. From this point of view, it is divided into two types: full and partial. The full reduplication has two models: non-added and added and the partial reduplication is divided into two groups: prefix and suffix. In the full non-added reduplication, the most quantitative frequency is related to phonetic and nominal basic forms.
The definition of the "basic form" is ignored in reduplication process or it is often so denied which is not expressed. In such compounds, the context or compounds conjugating the words give the whole combination a metaphoric and figurative meaning. For those basic forms in which the basic meaning is maintained, the frequent element attaches a new concept to the main meaning of the basic form. Diversity and frequency of frequent patterns and thereby the variety of meanings and concepts which can be expressed in this way are an indication of its productivity and extension for conjugating words in different languages.
Frequent words have not been independently collected in Persian language. Developing a specialized dictionary of such words facilitates their language description. The first step in this research was the preparation of the list of frequent words. The corpus was obtained from "Sokhan" comprehensive dictionary; however, to complete the corpus, "Dehkhoda" Dictionary, "Moein" Persian language dictionary, "Amid" Dictionary, "Name Avaei" Persian Dictionary, "Atbaa’ va Mohmalaat" Dictionary in Persian language were also used. After extracting the frequent words, based on common nominal features, they were described and classified based on their word-formation, grammar, and semantic. In this study, it is supposed that each of the frequent process patterns are composed of at least two units or structures and the way of the combination of these patterns cause structural, grammatical, and semantic differences in the frequent word-formation process.
Several studies in Persian and English have reviewed and investigated word-formation processes such as reduplication. In spite of their benefits, there are also some gaps. Some researchers have not paid attention to reduplication as a word-formation process and some others have had a selective review of its rules. They have not been able to show the position of the part and whole in comparison to each other in the reduplication process. Some others have also been attracted by the syntactic and semantic features of this process to the extent that they have ignored the relationship between the structure of these rules and meaning. Other studies have focused on this process based on certain linguistic theories, and less attention has been paid to the adaptation and localization of the theory. This is obvious in the limited and frequent selection of samples in the investigation and possibly known rules. Therefore, it was necessary to study frequent reduplication patterns of Persian language and systematically review the rules and the created meanings within the linguistic system, especially, partial reduplications of Persian language which have been ignored due to rare samples and some special considerations.
To review the reduplication process, the authors initially explains the nominal structures and the changes which in the frequent words and then describes the relevant grammatical and semantic issues.
The grammatical outcomes of the full non-added reduplication are adverbs, adjectives, nouns (sometimes in the form of onomatopoeia and sound) with a grammatical category usually different from the basic grammatical category and their core meaning implies the severity, intensity, speed, quantization, simplification, laxation, stress, mood, quality, frequency, continuity, succession, and alternation. The full non-added reduplication has metaphoric and virtual meanings in the linguistic context. Stylistically, its patterns are used in official and literary language.
In full reduplication which consists of adding at the middle of the word, the most quantitative variety is respectively observed in the constructions: "noun / adjective / adverb + be + noun / adjective / adverb", "noun / adjective / present verb root + e + noun / adjective / present verb root"," noun + dar / andar + noun "and" noun / adverb / phoneme + va + noun / adverb / phoneme". In the full reduplication which consists in adding at the end of the word, the most quantitative variety is respectively observed in "noun / adjective + noun / adjective +Ye" and "Noun + Noun + E / e".
The grammatical outcomes of the full non-added reduplication are adverbs, adjectives, nouns (sometimes in the form of onomatopoeia and sound). The meaning created is fully influenced by the grammatical morpheme (added element). The core meaning of this kind of reduplication is very wide and the most important ones include: frequency, intensity, diversity, continuity, sequence, quantization, repetition, mode, minimizing, humiliation, endearment, inclusion, force, confrontation, exchange, connection, cooperation, equality, conflict, confrontation, agitation, confusion, similarity, congestion, transcendence, inclusion, directionality, etc. most of the full-added reduplications have idiomatic, metaphorical, and figurative meanings and are used in the official and literary language. Some are also seen in the slang (childish and maternal) language.
Evidence of partially-added reduplication collected from the study show that a variety of prefixes and suffixes in this process almost follow the same pattern. Most of the partial reduplication patterns are common in the slang, childish and maternal languages and are accompanied with specific purposes such as endearment, humiliation, insult, humor, and stress.
In partial reduplication, the first basic phoneme bears a vital role in the formation of the frequent element, as the first basic phoneme is removed or preceded by an added phoneme. Sometimes, with the exception of the first phoneme, the basic form is associated with the removal and essential changes.
Regarding the structure, the partial-prefix reduplication is more extensive and diversified comparing to partial-suffix reduplication. The outcomes of the partial reduplication are nouns, adjectives, and possibly onomatopoeia and its core meanings are indicative of plurality, stress, and intensity in adjectives and they imply the proportional, adjacent, and similar things of the basic form. However, some negative and unfavorable senses are evident in some of these compounds.