عنوان مقاله [English]
Tarikh-e Baihaqi has been most often read as a seminal work of literature; by virtue of this fact, a great deal of its merits has been eclipsed. In this very research, the extent of demonstrating the prominence of war and military related issues will go under a close scrutiny. The prime assertion of this research states that Tarikhe-e Beihaqi presents a panoramic view of war and military affairs in Qaznavi period. Adding to the fact that Beihaqi has not been a mere chronicler, but a figure fully cognizant of war and military issues. In terms of paying close attention to the war and military affairs, Tarikh-e Beihaqi is being referred to as a towering magnum opus among other classical works.
In this very research, we indicated the fact that few remaining parts of Tarikh-e Beihaqi holds a special significance in shedding light on the very nature of obscurantism within Qaznavi period. Hence, given the textual extracts taken from the book, we elucidated and scrutinized the dark sides of Qaznavi tenure.
Embarking on studying Beihaqi, one will come across some military terms to the extent that a comprehensive understanding of the work requires and adequate knowledge of the terms. A further primary purpose of this research is to clarify and account for the military issues employed in Tarikh-e Beihaqi for its readers to make a better sense out of it.
In this paper, at first, the history of Beyhaqi, according to militarism, has been compared with some important historical works. In the next section, the fact that Beyhaqi describes military influenced by Ferdowsi is explained. The overall situation of Qaznavi Army is discussed based on the history of Beihaqi, and elements of the army are classified based on the book. In the next section, various types of weapons used in the book have been introduced and the ambiguous points have been analyzed. Moreover, the war style in Qaznavi era, according to what Bayhaqi brought in his book is investigated. Finally, in order to help the readers achieve an accurate and comprehensive understanding, scattering wars were important in areas of the war-by 421 to 432 with the image accordingly.
A Brief Look at the Expression of Military Affairs Quality as Reflected in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi and Comparing it with a Number of Historical Books
Drawing a comparison between the prominent historical books of Qaznavi and even the following periods, we come across a significant difference in the expression of military and war affairs. As such, in terms of the expression of military details, weapons, and different ways of war, Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi stands on one side of the spectrum and the rest on the other side, i.e. it signifies a remarkable supremacy. Beyhaqi describes the whole wars with utmost precision, introduces the pillars of army, and enumerates the weapons used in the war. He does it so masterfully that its readers can visualize the war if they are familiar with the technical terms used in the book.
Beyhaqi Under the Influence of Ferdowsi in Military Description
Given the fact that in other historical books that are contemporary with Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi or its forthcoming literature, except Tarikh-i-jahangusha Juvayni, war and military affairs have been rehearsed to the extent of pinpointing historical facts, Beyhaqi’s being under the influence of Ferdowsi could account for his interest in detailed description of war and strategies. The author of this book holds an epic tone while it is a historical work.
The Image of Qaznavi Army as Represented by Beyhaqi
What can be seen in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi is that in Sultan Masud’s army grandeur, conquest, and the characteristics regarded as positive for an army surpassed weakness, and negative characteristics. The king, as an authoritative man, takes control over the affairs, and Bayhāqī admires him throughout the book.
The Pillars of Legion and its Related Issues in Tarikh-I-Beyhaqi
In this section, the order of Qaznavi legion and its pyramid have been considered. Additionally, the different types of weapons and the issues related to the right and nutrition of legion have been specified.
War Styles, Military Conventions, and Martial Actions as Mentioned in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi
In this section, it has been explained that the wars in Qaznavi period have taken place in the three forms of guerrilla, face-to-face, and besieging. Furthermore, this section has explained military actions.
The Wars Mentioned in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi
In this section, all the already mentioned wars have been discussed and the geographical map of those strategies has been shown. Among the wars mentioned in Tarikh-i-Beyhaqi, all of them have been recorded as bringing victory to Qaznavi legion except two.
Although Tarikh- i Beyhaqi is taken into consideration as a work of literature and history, but it can be a good source for obtaining military information and details of Military during the Ghaznavi period. Because the author of the book had been present in all important government events and highlights significant and detailed points for the reader.
It seems that one of the main reasons Beyhaqi pays attention to details and military issues is that he was influenced by Ferdowsi's Shahname. The similarity between Beyhaqi and Shahnameh in this issue has also been represented in the similarities between prominent characters of Tarikh- i Beyhaqi and Shahnameh’s heroes as well as the quality of wars.
On the other hand, comparing Tarikh-i Beyhaqi and other historical books and even books following Ghaznavi era shows that military matters explained in this book are different from other monuments in terms of accurate and detailed analysis. It can be claimed that Beyhaqi is not a mere court editor and author, but he can be considered as a human scientist who has mastered different sciences including military sciences.