عنوان مقاله [English]
The phenomenon of language and factors affecting that have long been the subject of extensive research. In general, in all the languages, there are differences between speakers in terms of pronunciation of vocabulary and grammar. These differences include both individual and group differences. "The group differences depend on non-linguistic factors such as geographic region, age, gender, educational level, social class, religion, occupation, etc." (Bateni, 1984, pp. 78-79). Gender, from among the social factors affecting language, plays an important role in development of linguistic differences and leads to emergence of different linguistic characteristics in men and women. Moreover, the linguistic differences between men and women in different social situations can be attributed to their different social position in the society (Noushinfar, 2002, p. 185). In the present research, the Romance letters in four Lyric poetry collections have been studied using different linguistic theories, and Robin Lakoff’s theory in particular. Robin lakoff believes that female language is inferior to male language because female language includes signs of weaknesses as well as emphasis on meaningless, non-serious points and emotional responses. In his opinion, male language is more robust, and women seeking social equality with men must acknowledge their language "(Selden & Woodson, 1998, p. 263). All four poems that are to be investigated in the present study are composed by male poets, but some parts of these poems that mainly cover romance letters include words that are uttered by the female and male characters. Therefore, the main goal of the present research is to study the extent to which male poets have managed to represent gender language in these works.
According to the main hypothesis of the study, the language used in all four poetry collections correspond to the gender language, and all the poets have been able to represent the female language in letters from the female character of the story. The research question is: which of the poets has been more successful in representing the gender language and what is the reason for the lack of consistency between some poems and the gender language? The letters contained in the Khosrow and Shirin, Leili and Majnun and Shirin and Khosrow poetry collections have been thoroughly investigated in terms of conformity with gender language, as for Vis and Ramin poem collection, two letters from Vis and two letters from Ramin have been selected for content analysis. Documentary method and descriptive statistics have been used in this research. First, some gender language criteria based on linguistic theories, as well as some examples of the texts associated with the subject of the study are presented, and the application of each variable in the letters from male and female characters are analyzed at the end of each section.
In this section, the linguistic theories, especially Robin Lakoff’s theory have been drawn on to specify the most important differences between male and female language. The results obtained from this investigation are then used to analyze the romance letters in the above-mentioned poems collections according to Lakoff, the most important features of female language are:
1) Hedges: hedges are words that represent a sense of hesitation and anxiety. He believes that women use such words to avoid definite comments and sometimes refrain from answering; 2) more frequent use of adverbs such as “many”; 3) more frequent use of empty adjectives, i.e. adjectives that describe nouns, just like other adjectives, but cannot be defined explicitly; 4) direct quotation; 5) specific vocabulary, women use vocabularies that relate to their particular interests in different domains; 6) avoiding coarse or masculine language; 7) the use of indirect speech to make requests (Lakoff, 1975, p. 52-54) and 8) Lakoff also believes that the declarative statements are mostly made into questions in the female language (Cameron, 2005, p. 490).
According to Lakoff theory, another difference between women and men is that women allow the addressee dominate over the conversation. Women use expressive linguistic forms more frequently, while men mostly use rational linguistic forms. Adverb and adjective are emotional expressions, but noun and verb have rational implications. The frequency of adjectives is much higher in female language. Women adhere to linguistic standards more than men do and send confirmation marks more frequently. The vocal patterns used by women are similar to questions and need confirmations. Moreover, women do not act as magisterial as men do. Lakoff believes that women use high sentence intonation and intensifiers to emphasize their speeches. They use "intensifiers" to emphasize on sentences and boost semantic load and consequently make their speech important. They describe things more intensely while men provide simple descriptions (Fotohi, 1391, p. 398-399). Therefore, the difference between the male and female languages are usually related to the frequency of specific linguistic elements. Therefore, using linguistic features derived from the views of Robin Lakoff and other linguists, romantic letters have been investigated within a framework of Persian semantics.
Vis and Ramin, Shirin and Khosrow by Amir Khosrow Dehlavi, proved to be more consistent with the principles of gender language. Based on the findings:
- The highest frequency of imperative sentences in the romantic letters of Vis and Ramin and Shirin and Khosrow poems is seen in the male language, in Khosrow Shirin and Leili and Majnoun of Nezami, however, such sentences are mostly seen in the letters from the female characters of the story; therefore, the language of romantic letters in these two poetry collections are not consistent with the linguistic principles of gender.
- The question sentences that characterize female language in Vis and Ramin and Shirin and Khosrow are more frequently used in the letters from the female character, in Khosrow and Shirin and Leili and Majnoun, however, these sentences are most commonly used more by the male character of the story.
- Swearing sentences: In the Vis and Ramin, Khosrow and Shirin and Shirin and Khosrow poetry collections, the prayer sentences are consistent with the linguistic principles of gender and are more frequently used in the letters from female characters. In Leili and Majnoun, however, such sentences are most commonly used in the letters from the male characters of the story.
- As for proto-declarative and performative declarative sentences, all the poetry collections except for Leili and Majnoun, are consistent with the linguistic principles of gender.
- In all of the letters, except for Leili and Majnoun, the secondary roles of the sentences and declarative sentences are more frequently used in the letters from female characters.
According to the findings, the gender language, especially the variables that show the weakness of this language, are less evident in Nezami’s "Leili and Majnoun" and "Khosrow and Shirin" than the other two poetry collections. The reasons for the inconsistency between the gender language and Nezami’s words should be sought in the personal perspective of Nezami towards the woman character, the cultural and social conditions of the region where the story was created, personal perspective of Nezami towards Shirin as well as his interest in this character. Cultural differences and the historical and social status of Arab women can be considered as one of the causes of inconsistency between Leili and Majnoun's letters and the principles of gender language. Moreover, Leili and Majnoun are among the first works with a mystical background, in which Nezami depicts mystical journeys with weakness and subjugation of Majnoun.