نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی.
دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Climate diversity, clans and different cultures beside the large extent of Khorasan have made poems and songs as a part of people’s culture. Eighty percent of this region’s poems are “Aroozi Poems” and other twenty percent of common Kurdi and Azeri poems in North Khorasan are syllable poems. This fact shows that the grace and tendency of people to Aroozi poems or changing syllable to Aroozi poems is more than other regions. These poetries are performed by the singers and instrumentalists called “Ashegh”, “Bakhshi”, “Looti” and “Loulouchi”. Due to the diverse and rich folk poems of Khorasan, song’s genres of this region qualitatively and quantitatively developed. Rubai and Dobeyti (Persian quatrains) are gist and main part of Khorasan’s music and have a high diversity. Folk poetries of Khorasan are divided into seven common groups:
1- Gala Poems
In Birjand and some of its near districts, individuals and groups sing “Charbeyti” or “Charbeytu” commonly in marriage ceremonies, parties and circumcision ceremonies. Birjand people sing “Halooke” in religious ceremonies.
2. Sorrow Poems
In Birjand, while the ending of mourning ceremonies and after reading Quran and Fatiha for blessing of deceased person, people sing some poems called “Khatmiyo”. Also, “Sarvazani” or “Nava Avari” are poems that are sung to show condolence to deseaced’s family in Southern Khorasan. After invasion of aliens and massacre of people, women used to sing a song called “Anaraki”. Kormanjies of North Khorasan used to sing “Allah Mazar” beside the graves of their deceased persons. “Nasrou” is a common folk poem in Khorasan which is sung in the sorrow of a man called “Nasrou”. Nowadays, “Rashid Khan” song which was a sorrow song has changed to a festive and dancing music. “Harraei” is another mourning song, used to be sung in Ghoochan. “Sobh Rou Siah” is a mourning song that is sung before sunrise in the morning of “Ashura” to show their sorrow of killing of Imam Hossein.
3. Entertainment Poems
These are songs that people sing in their leisure time and by reason of getting entertained. One example is “Fal Sorouds” which has specific custom and ordinance in each region. Some songs are being sung in the time of some events or occasions called “Fal” songs such as “Chel Beyto” that is performed by women and among nomads. Quatrain in Chel Beyto is the base of performance. Each woman leaves an evidence of themselves in a jug, then while people singing a song for winter coming, an immature girl gets summoned to bring one of the evidences out of jug. Playing songs are other part of entertainment poems. These kinds are counting songs in order to make children familiar to counting numbers. “Ghazal Khanoom” is one of these songs which contain twelve songs for numbers one to eleven. Some of entertaining songs are rhythmic enigmas called “Chizchizak”.
Rhythmic stories were entertaining for people and most of narrating stories were read by methods like “Shahnamekhani”, “Naghali” and “Naghl Avazeha” and in a rhythmic way. Naghl Avaz is a common way of reading a rhythmic story in Khorasan. “Zamen Ahoo”, “Najma” and “Nane Gol Mamad” are famous ones. Nane Gol Mamad is story of unfair killing of “Gol Mamad’’ in 1945 in Sabzevar mounts.
There is another type of song which performs doubles and is sung in gala ceremonies called “Parijan” or “Parikhani”. It includes the love story of two lovers, “Siahmou” the female and “Jalali” male. The story originates in Taybad. “Aftabekhani” is a festive theater performed in some events especially marriage ceremonies in
4. Work Poems
An example of these poems is shepherds’ songs. The main format of their poems is Dobeyti or Rubai (quatrain). In Khorasan, the quatrains of shepherds are called “Faryad” or “Kale Faryad”. Different methods of performing Faryad, by means of singing technics, cause different names for these poems, such as “Jamshidi” or “Sarhaddi”. Some of other work poems are:
• “Oshtorkhjoo” to call up camels by the shepherd
• “Sardero’ei” sung in the time of harvesting
• “Bo Nando’ei” sung in the time of roof sealing off
5. Sleep and caress Poems
In Khorasan, Sleep and caress poems are whispered by mothers to put their children to sleep. They call these poems “Laalakhooni”.
6. Romantic Poems
Themes of these poems are expressing love of lovers, separation, complaint, dialogue between lovers, departing pain and etc. “Falak Khani” is one of the main parts of Khorasan music. It is a type of poem to show complaint or protest. In Eastern Khorasan and Torbat Jam there are three romantic singing rhythms in the names of “Jamshidi”, “Sarhaddi” and “Hazaregi” which have mutual origins. Jamshidi has the format of Ruba’i and dobeyti. Sarhaddi is a romantic song which is sung in Torbat Jam and in the format of consecutive five and nine, and each one has independent theme. Some of other Sarhaddi rhythms are “Shah Zaman”, “Aman Leyli”, “Del Sheyda” and also some Sarhaddi dobeyti rhythms are “Jamshidi”, ”Hazaragi”, “Kooche baghi” , “Koohsani” and “Hasan Abadi”.
Hazaregi poems have romance-mysticism themes. Another romance poem type is “Faraghi” which is called also “Gharibi” in some regions especially Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and is called “Charbeyto” in some other regions. Faraghies are pathetic peoms that are composed in these contents: being away from home, sweetheart, lover, parents and etc. “Nava’ei” also has romance theme and it is one of the most popular and widespread ongoing rhythms in north of Khorasan that has a Turki part on it. In Ghoochan, local instrumentalists play “Nava’ei” with “Dotar” and sing some local lyricist’s songs. “Se Kheshti” is another romance poem, sung by Kormanj Kurds in Bojnord, Birjand, Shirvan, Neyshabour, Esfarayen, Ghoochan, Daregaz and Kalat Naderi especially in villages and clans.
7. Benediction Poems
Benediction songs are a combination of asking for needs and praying in a rhythmic way. Some of them belong to “Ramazan” month, such as “Sahar Khani” or “Ramazan Khani” which has special customs. “Allah Ramazooni” is a song that is sung by youths in the nights of Ramazan month and after breaking their fast. It is performed in many cities in Iran and it is known as “Ramazani” in Birjand. “Haghane” or “Haghighi” is a kind of song that eulogizes influential figures. In “Sade Birjand” they call these songs “Haghighi”. Groups of benediction poems belong to those songs that are read to ask God for rain. Due to drought in Khorasan, people sing these poems to ask God for rain. In Birjand, it is called “Atalo Matalo”.
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