منظومه‌های علمی و آموزشی در ادبیات فارسی و بررسی سیر و محتوای آن (تا قرن نهم)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی.

نویسنده

دانشکاه جبرفت

چکیده

بخش قابل توجهی از ادبیات فارسی شامل منظومه‌های علمی است که با اهداف آموزشی سروده شده است. هدف این مقاله بررسی این منظومه‌هاست که از منظرهایی چون مؤلفه‌های این نوع ادبی، دلایل و انگیزه‌های سرایش و سیر آن در ادبیات فارسی بررسی شده است. این نوع ادبیات به نظم علوم مختلف می‌پردازد و اگرچه از عناصر شعری چون وزن و قافیه بهره می‌گیرد، عناصری چون خیال جایگاه بسیار اندک و ثانویه‌ای در آن دارد. دلایلی چون تنوع و گسترش شیوه‌های آموزشی و نقش وزن در ایجاد رغبت به مطالعه و حفظ و به خاطر سپردن موضوعات از عوامل گسترش این منظومه‌ها بوده است. از منظر دسته‌بندی علوم، این منظومه‌ها بیشتر در علوم منقول همچون بلاغت، عروض و لغت است. نخستین اثری که در این حوزه سروده شده قصیده‌ای از ابوالهیثم ‌(اواخر قرن چهارم) است و از قرن هفتم به بعد رواج این منظومه‌ها گسترش قابل توجهی یافته است. از نظر تقسیم‌بندی علوم در گذشته، منظومه‌های آموزشی هم در علوم معقول و هم در علوم منقول سروده شده؛ اگرچه میزان منظومه‌هایی در علوم نقلی مانند کلام، لغت، صرف و نحو و علوم بلاغی بسیار بیشتر از علوم عقلی مانند طب است. البته در لابه‌لای برخی آثار نیز سروده‌هایی دیده می‌شود که می‌توان از مقولۀ آموزشی محسوب کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Scientific and educational poems in Persian literature and investigating their content (to the 9th century)

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahdi Dehrami
University of Jiroft
چکیده [English]

1- Introduction
Poetry Collection is a long, narrative or non-narrative poetry revolving around a topic, which is mostly written in the form of Couplet. Many Persian poems have been created with the purpose of teaching and memorializing various sciences such as grammar, medicine, mathematics, etc. Such poems are called educational literature from which there are many examples in Persian literature in various subjects. As a matter of fact, teaching truth and science is the main purpose of these poems whose poets have used weight and rhyme and some other rules of poetry "(Shafii Kadkani, 1996: 8). In these poems, the scientific and educational aspects are taken priority over literary and poetic aspects. The main contribution of this paper is to discuss the effects of these poems on the history of Persian literature. Besides, the reasons for the trend toward teaching poems in different periods, as well as their components are discussed in this paper.
2- Methodology
This study is based on the descriptive analysis method by using library research by referring to books such as the history of literature, bibliographies and other books, scientific poems have been found in Persian literature and have been studied by categorizing them in different aspects.
3- Discussion
There are a few poems that are devoid of scientific topics because the poets have not been without the science and technology of the time. Nezami Aruzi (2001) says: "As poetry is used in any science, any science is also used in poetry" (p. 47). Although educational literature discusses various sciences, every poem cannot be regarded as educational literature. This kind of literature has its own specific features. The most important feature of educational poetry is the goal of the poet, because its purpose is to teach a particular knowledge or seek to obtain the truth. Another characteristic of educational poetry is the role of features of poetry in it. Scientific poetry uses some features of poetry, such as meter and rhyme, but features such as image have a very small and secondary place in it.If such features are used, they are utilized for a better understanding of the meaning. Educational literature in transferring emotions is also different from other poems because in the educational literature, the poet does not attempt to convey emotion
One of the most important reasons for the prevalence of educational poetry is its musical aspect. Abu Nasr Farahi says: "The nature of man enjoys it instinctively" (Farahi, 1995: 4) and it reduces the stiffness and violence of scientific topics. On the other hand, meter and rhyme plays an important role in remembering issues. meter and rhyme creates a sort of order in vocabulary. From this perspective, remembering of poetry is easier than prose texts.
Another factor in the prevalence of these poems is the variety of educational methods. One of the methods used in teaching science such as grammar and rhetoric science from the seventh century was the creation of educational poetry.
Another important issue about these poems is the motivation to compose them. The reasons for the compilation of these poems are different and in many cases, friends and relatives and rulers of the country have asked the poet to make it and some of them, of course, due to the poet's own desire. Abu Nasr Farahi wrote his book under the command of Nazam al-Mulk Hassan, Minister of Bahramshah. It shows that only the poet's personal desire is not effective, but secondary factors have also been effective. Many of these impresses have been donated to the ruler, but their motivation has been personal. Maysri, although presenting his medical encyclopedia to a ruler named Nasser al-Dawlah. But the reason for its creation is the durability of its name and the acquisition of good prayers.(Misery, 1994: 266 - 269)
Educational poetry have been written in science such as theology, rhetoric and vocabulary. It seems the oldest educational poetry in Persian literature is the odd of Abu Al-Aytham(Ahmad Bin Hassan Jarjani) in the late fourth and early fifth centuries. He has only one poem and in that poem, he has asked questions about various Ismaili issues. Another poet who wrote educational poetry is Nasser Khosrow. He is the Promoter of the Ismaili religion and like a teacher who considers educational goals as their main goals.
Other sciences that have been taught in poetry before the seventh century is meter. The oldest impress in this field is a poem of Rashid Vatwat (dying at 573 AH). This impress is more ancient than the prose works in meter in persian language (al-Mu'jam and Me'yar al-Ash'ar).
The importance of Arabic language and the need to learn it for Persian students led to the creation of many Arabic bilingual cultures in Persian language. Sometimes, some people translated some of the most important Arabic vocabulary into Persian for ease of learning. Obviously, these dictionaries have not translated all the vocabulary or a large number of words into Persian. The beginning of writing this type of diction is from the seventh century AH. The first person that wrote this type of dictionary in the form of poetry was Abu Nasr Farahi in the seventh century (Monzavi, 1959: 84). His famous book, Nasab al-Sibiyan, was initially two hundred verses. The style of Abu Nasr was imitated by many people. Including in these books: Tajanis al-alfas from Amir Khosraw, Selk al-jawaher from Angoori, Nasib al-Ekhvan from Motahhar, Muhammadiyeh from Baha'ddin, Merqhab al-Arab from Ahmadi Kermyani, Tohfaeh Alayi from Ibn Bavvab, Katebieh from Katebi Anqoravi, Nesab from Hassani, Mosallasat from Badiei, Fathieh from Abol Fath e Hejazi, Nesab e Maroof from Maroof, Abvab Al-Oloom from Darvish e Jami, Fetiat Al-Fetyan from Sadr Aldin ibn Badr.
Rhetoric is also taught in the form of poetry. In Persian language, the oldest impress in this science is the Tarjoman al-Balaghe of Radviani. Some people also tried to teach this science in the form of poetry. In this area, the oldest book is Bahr Al-Sanaye from Hassan Motakallem in 731 AH. Another impress in this science is a book by Jaami that has been written on how to make riddle in 67 verses.
Some Persian scholars and poets have written poetry in the field of medicine. Medicine has had important dignity among Muslims. The importance of this science has led some people to teach it in poetry. In this field, The oldest book in Persian Language is medicine encyclopedia from Hakim Maysari. Some researchers, of course, know it from the fourth and some seventh century.The most important book of poetry in the medical sciences is Yousefi's medicine and its descriptions, Hame Al-Favayed, which was written in the 10th century AH.


4- Conclusion
Scientific and educational poetry is a part of didactic literature and its main features include: being scientific, having an educational goal, avoiding ambiguity, and emphasizing simplicity. A significant part of Persian literature, include scientific poem that have been written with educational aims. Scientific and educational poetry is a part of didactic literature and its main features include: being scientific, having an educational goal, avoiding ambiguity, and emphasizing simplicity. Though, uses of Poetic elements such as meter and rhyme. But elements such as image, have little and second position in it. The main trend of this poetry is from 7th century .And before that, has been written little casts in this context. The first cast that has been written in this field, is an ode from Abolheysam (4th century). And next, has been reached in some of Naser khosro’s poetry. The division of the past, the educational poems have been written both in rational and Traditional Sciences .Although the number of poems in Traditional sciences such as vocabulary, grammar and rhetorical sciences is much more than rational sciences such as medical.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Scientific and educational literature
  • rational and Traditional sciences
  • educational poem
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