عنوان مقاله [English]
What is today known as the school of psychoanalysis criticism in literature is rooted in the studies and researches of Sigmund Freud on the human unconscious. His findings regarding cognition and brain functions introduced new models for literary analysis. His structural model is one of the most significant theories in explaining the whatness of the mind and its workings. According to this tripartite model, the mind is divided into three parts each of which has a unique function. The present study is an attempt to analyze the interactions between the three characters of the short story Wolf by Hooshang Golshiri based on the Freudian model in order to reveal new aspects of the story.
Several researches has applied psychoanalytic criticism to study the works of Golshiri. However, they were too general and did not include this very story in specific. This is the first attempt to read Wolf within the framework of structural model of Frued.
2- Methodology and Critical Approach
In his oeuvre, Freud has divided the human mind into three parts "id", "ego" and "superego". Id is the unknown and unconscious part of the mind which includes destructive thoughts. Id is after fulfilling the pleasure principle. What attracted Freud's attention was the unknown and hidden part of the human psyche, ego. The autonomy of the ego is indicative of the real structured goal in individuals' life. In other words, Freud considers the ego as a rebellious drive in the human life. Furthermore, Freud mentions "instinct" as related to the ego. Instinct in a way is the main factor in the emergence of the ego. If ego is the life drive, instinct is the drive for the ego. He believed there are two kinds of instinct in human: Eros or the sexual instinct and libido, and the destructive instinct. These propel individuals towards success and are insatiable. Taking this model as the theoretical basis for this study, the present researcher considers Akhtar, Doctor and the Wolf respectively as ego, superego and the id.
3- Findings and Discussion
Akhtar's spouse is anonymous in the novel and he is called Doctor. He has a very insignificant presence as the superego beside Akhtar as the id. Thus, the void for a reliable spouse is filled with an aggressive, insatiable and destructive instinct like a wolf which stands for the ego in the story. Akhtar is a woman who is always standing by the window in front of a huge wolf with two jade black unrelenting eyes which stands for hours staring at Akhtar's window. The most significant challenge of the story is Akhtar's inner challenge. This includes a contradiction between the wolf as force against the love of Doctor and Doctor's interest in his social life.
The wolf is seeking after Akhtar's solitude, submission and destruction and its posture and gaze has caused some kind of dominion and possession over Akhtar. This is very obviously visible in the final parts of the story. In the beginning of the story, the wolf's presence gives her anxiety yet in the middle of the story, this fear changes into some kind of curiosity and serenity. The wolf's domineering feature mesmerized her and this is the realization of wolf's libido which could gain her trust through some spiritual connection. This duality can be seen in Akhtar's drawings which represent something between a dog and a wolf. Dog and wolf are different not only in looks but also in personality. If wolf represents aggression, dog represents security. What is more, a herding dog, as mentioned in the story, is more loyal and responsible than an ordinary dog. Golshiri has wisely pointed to this feature to show that the wolf is turning into a dog in Akhtar's mind. The ending of the story is the confrontation of Akhtar, the Wolf and Doctor, id, ego and superego, in a snowy scene. In this confrontation, Doctor does not leave the car out of fear while no fear is seen in Akhtar.. She has accepted the wolf and has given up id to ego and thus superego's attempts to oppress ego are in vain.
Therefore, superego is defeated and ego overcomes id. Akhtar gets out of the car and walks towards the wolf and disappears in the snow. The findings of this research based on Freudian model provide a new reading of this story and reveal new aspects in analyzing its elements. A deep understanding of the characters of the story is accessible once their interactions with each other as well as their surrounding is studied. This approach is another one of the findings of this study which examines these elements in a psychoanalytic discourse.
In the present paper, based on Freudian concepts, a psychoanalytic reading of the story, The Wolf,was carried out in which three main characters, Wolf, Akhtar and Doctor, were compared to ego, id and superego respectively and their functions were studied according to Freud's structural model. Wolf in this story represents both Eros and Thanatos. Representing ego, Akhtar is the central character in the story who is the target of the Wolf’s desire. The doctor plays the role of the superego as the controlling agent for ego. The main struggle of this story is the confrontation among these three characters. The contrast between the love for Doctor and the instinctual tendency towards the Wolf has made Akhtar's life chaotic and ends in her destruction.