پیوند و گسست متن و نگاره در شاهنامه بایسنغری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی.

نویسندگان

دانشگاه نیشابور

چکیده

شاهنامه ­بایسنغری، اثر ممتاز و برجسته مکتب نگارگری هرات تیموری در عصر شاهرخ تیموری است که به سفارش بایسنغرمیرزا، فرزند هنردوست شاهرخ و با دعوت از هنرمندان بزرگ آن روزگار خلق گردید. این اثر از دو جنبه متن و نگاره حائز اهمیت است؛ چرا که متن آن توسط گروهی از شاهنامه‌ شناسان بزرگ فراهم آمده و نگاره ­های آن توسط نام‌ آوران مکتب نگارگری هرات به تصویر کشیده شده است و این فرضیه را در ذهن متبادر می‌سازد که احتمالاً ارتباط تنگاتنگی بین متن و تصویر در این شاهنامه وجود داشته باشد. همین نکته اساس این پژوهش را شکل می‌دهد. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی پیوند و گسست بین متن شاهنامه ‌بایسنغری و نگاره­ های آن می­باشد. پرسش این است: نگارگران شاهنامه ‌بایسنغری تا چه اندازه به متن ادبی شاهنامه در ترسیم نگاره­های آن وابسته بوده‌‌اند؟ این پژوهش با بهره‌گیری از روش تحلیلی-تطبیقی و استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای-اسنادی به بیان موضوع می‌پردازد. نتایج تحقیق مبیّن آن است که نگارگران شاهنامه بایسنغری، از آموخته ­های خود در تصویرگری بهره ‌برده و الگوهای از پیش ‌آموخته را به تصویر کشیده­اند؛ از این‌رو توجه چندانی به متن کتاب نداشته­ و خود را موظف به خوانش متن ندانسته ‌اند؛ بنابراین در این نسخه ارتباط چندانی بین متن و نگاره ­ها وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Link and break in the text and images of Baysonqori Shahnama

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Rajabi Niaz Abadi
  • Farzaneh Farrokhfar
University of Neyshabur
چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
The reign of Shahrokh Timurid is an era of brilliance and stability of Iranian culture and art. The son of Shahrokh Teymouri, Baysonqor, established a royal library in Herat and brought together great artists and wrote incredible masterpieces there. One of the outstanding works of that time is the Baysonqori Shahnama. Baysonqori Shahnama is an ancient version of Ferdowsi's Shahnama in 833 AH. This exquisite book is a transcendental work having 690 pages with 22 Herat-style paintings. The pictures of Baysonqori Shahnama represent the official style of the period that incorporated and integrated the influences of Eastern art. This unique version of the Herat Timurid School provides an appropriate context for assessing the qualitative characteristics of Shahrokh's era due to the sensitivity of its creators in literary text editing and in drawing quality paintings. The comparative study of text and image is one of the most important issues addressed in this study.
2. Theoretical Framework
Various studies have been carried out in relation to the Baysonqori Shahnama and its text, images, illumination and imitation (e.g., Romer's articles). Roemer considers this version of the Shahnama as the main source of later Shahnamas and presents it with more than 58,000 bits, the most detailed version of the Shahnama, which uses legendary scenes alongside realistic images. The second volume of the Encyclopedia of the World of Islam, which contains various articles on Iranian art history, describes in detail the Baysonqori Shahnama and its various illustrations and the various art elements included in it. These two sources, together with sources such as namnar, communicator and text in the construction of meaning and intertextual study of the Persepolis of Jamshid in Baysonqori Shahnama can be named as part of the sources that have contributed to the relevance of the text and images of this edition; however, in response to the research question, there are no complete sources. In this regard, this article particularly deals with the subject of linkage and rupture of text and image in the Baysonqori Shahnama and is innovative.
The importance of this study comes from the fact that new and accurate information can be obtained about the artist's link to the Shahnama text. Baysonqori Shahnama is important in both aspects of text and iconography because its text was provided by a group of great Shahnamas and its pictures were portrayed by the names of the Herat School of Painting, making the hypothesis that the relation between text and image is likely to be close in this Shahnameh. The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between the text of Baysonqori Shahnama and its pictures. This study seeks to answer the following question: To what extent did the painter of Bisnegar's Shahnama depend on the literary text of the work in drawing his paintings? It seems that since the text of the Baysonqori Shahnama was provided by a group of prominent Shahnama scholars, it is probably more accurate in its painting and the artists have been loyal to the literary text of the Shahnama.
3. Research Methodology
This study uses comparative-analytic method and library-documentary sources to express the topic. The case study contains seven masterpieces of the first Baysonqori Shahnama which are considered masterpieces of this edition and are capable of measuring text and image communication. These paintings, which make up one-third of the total images of this edition, are performed by prominent Herat School painters and showcase outstanding visual quality. These paintings include "Siavash Kills", "Rustam and Dave White", King Jamshid ", " Rustam and Khaqan of China" and "Rustam and Borzou".
4. Results and Discussion
In this study, the selected paintings were examined in several important respects: diversity and multiplicity of characters, affective states, goggles, satan, scenery, landscaping, portraiture, iconography, color and quality of performance, which were compared in each section between the thematic and comparative analysis of paintings done. Thus, in each section, the verses associated with each picture were read and the passages were compared to those of each bit with the desired picture. Some points are important in analyzing the text and matching findings and selected images of the Baysonqori version of the Shahnama. Most characters, especially the main characters of the story, are drawn according to the text, but there are significant differences in the representation of the minor characters. In the face-painting, the type of goggles and satan has less connection between the text and the image, and the artist sometimes encapsulates items that do not appear in the text. In some paintings of scene depictions and landscapes, text is subordinate, while in other paintings there are differences in the choice of elements and layout of the scene. All paintings use a combination angle and they all share the same viewing angle that gives the scene more power. In addition, the viewing angle is four pictures from above and three pictures from below. Imaginary and natural landscapes are an integral part of Iranian painting in all paintings. The figures in all the paintings are Mongolian and conventional, and the representation of age is evident in most of them, except for Siavash and Rostam and Dave's biographies that are not specific. The icons are conventional and have nothing to do with the text. Animal proportions are also present in all, but human proportions are only observed in the image of Rostam and Dave. Emotional expression is also seen only in the two paintings of "Zal and Rudabeh" and "Rostam and Dave". In all the paintings, there is a connection between the story elements and the attention to the breathing space. The bottom line is that the composition is at the center of the scene in most scenes, emphasizing the main subject.
5. Conclusion
Based on the research findings, it can be stated that the painters of the Baysonqori Shahnama have used their own style to depict the paintings and have attempted in many ways to use their masters or previous knowledge of the storytelling as well as the style. Therefore, the research question is answered as follows: The painters of Baysonqori Shahnama did not need to read the text of Baysonqori Shahnama for illustration and did not pay much attention to it. The relationship between the text and the verses of the Baysonqori with its paintings is very low, and the painter is highly dependent on the verses in it. Of course, it has no drawings and is quite independent in some cases. The hypothesis raised in this study that the painter was careful in drawing images to the verses and using less transcendent themes and characters is rejected due to the many extracurricular characters seen in the paintings. However, the assumption that the painter reads the same page at least once in drawing some pictures is somewhat true. Due to some stories, the lack of visual backgrounds such as "Rustam and Khaghani" or the subject of the painting which is not related to Shahnama such as "Rustam and Borzou", the artist has read the verses in question. This study is important because it examines an important part of the Shahnama's paintings, both its content and visual, and distinguishes it from other manuscripts in different eras.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Herat School of painting
  • Baysonqori Shahnama
  • Link in the text and image
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