عنوان مقاله [English]
Kushnāmeh as one of the most important epics after Shāhnāmeh includes 10,000 couplets. Irānshān bn Abi al-Kheir composed it between 501 and 504 AH during the reign of Sultān Muhammad bn Maltakshāh, the Seljuq king. This story is about Kush-e Pil Dandān, Zahhāk's nephew, who was raised by Ābtin. He after many ups and downs and many changes inside and outside, went in virtuous ways. The only surviving manuscript dates back to around 800 AH (about 300 years after the composition of the work). It is evident that Jalāl Matini, the commentator of the book, has put much effort into collating this work. He argues that over 500 couplets of this work are not clear in terms of meaning. In this paper, it was tried to clarify the meaning of some couplets, while posing some suggestions about the recording of about 50 vague couplets.
In this research, adopting an approach based on textual criticism and textual and intra-textual characteristics, it attempted to analyze the recording of some couplets of Kushnāmeh, while highlighting the shortcomings of the current version, a clearer documentation has been offered. Meanwhile, it was attempted to present a more meaningful denotation of some vague couplets.
The study tried to extract vague couplets based on textual criticism approach. Then, an elaborate view of Jalāl Matini version of Kushnāmeh and other scholars about the recording or meaning of each couplet is presented. Then, resorting to in-text and out-of-text sources, their views are analyzed and criticized. Then according to the text correction features, it was attempted to present a more accurate recording of each couplet and more precise meaning of some vague couplets.
Results and Discussion
Since only one version of Kushnāmeh has survived, the correction of the couplets is inevitably deductive. Despite his remarkable correction, Matini mentions that over 500 couplets of this work is not clear in terms of meaning or recording. In addition to offering new meaning of some couplets, this author has tried to offer suggestions about the recording of about 50 vague couplets of Koushnāmeh.
In this paper, in addition to offering new meanings for some couplets, it was tried to offer suggestions about the recording of about 50 vague couplets of Kushnāmeh. It was found that in some cases, there are ambiguities due to either the insufficient attention to the texture of the text or the incorrect recording of a word or phrase in a couplet.