عنوان مقاله [English]
If we do not say that Hafez is the greatest employer of the novel technique of ambiguity in Persian, we can at least acknowledge that the novel and unique technique of "ambiguity" is present in the structure of most of Hafez's poems and is among the poets of ambiguity. On the other hand, the use of irony is one of the reasons why Hafez's poetry is widely understood by common groups of people, as Zarrinkoub points out: The use of colloquial words and sarcasm of the common people is also sometimes graceful. By this usage, Hafez's poems will receive a special elegance and we can say that although Hafez's poems are scientific, but the irony doesn't hurt its body. And it gives a special elegance to his poetry, and on the one hand, it is easy to make Hafez’s words prosperous, even though it is refined, wise, and to an industrial extent, the use of vulgar and market words and allusions (Zarinkoub, 2004).
2. Theoretical framework
Ambiguous irony technique is a combination of the individual techniques of "irony" and "ambiguity". For example, due to interpreting the term trouble as wine, it will take two meanings: a real and an irony concept. Because of these two concepts, we can say that we have ambiguity. Like interpretation of "trouble" term for the wind; Which, considering the two real and ironic consequences, is ambiguous; For example, in these verses of Nasser Ali:
They sell zucchini douche and now I am the wound of my head
I bought a measure of gold, I bought gold and I bought trouble
In this verse, the irony of "buying trouble" on the one hand refers to hardship, noise and suffering, and on the other hand to the headache caused by a hangover; Therefore, this irony has two meanings and consequently ambiguity.
This research which is descriptive-analytical and uses library sources, tries to reintroduce the technique of "ambiguous irony" (which is on the verge of oblivion) in Hafez's lyric images.
This combined technique has a significant presence and influence on the structure of images throughout Hafez's divan, and one of the reasons is that the poet pays too much attention to the technique of ambiguity. In fact, Hafez's use of this novel element cannot be compared with any of the poets before and after him, and from this perspective, he is the best among all Persian language poets (Mirdar Rezaei, 2018). With this explanation, many poets who show less evidence of ambiguity in the structure of their images (such as Khorasani style poets), are automatically out of the range of poets who make their images from composite and special industries. They use the trick of ambiguous irony, they go out. But as mentioned, Hafez has a special place in using this technique (and other combined techniques).