عنوان مقاله [English]
The Kurdish cultural sphere (zone), in the central part of the Middle East, has most diverse religions. The Kurds are joint ethnically and linguistically with Aryans. On the other hand, due to the geographical proximity with important centers of the Semitic religions, they have been affected with many religions. Yezidism is one of these religions that has a few followers in Iraqi Kurdistan. Yazidi religion, has two sacred books and a rich oral literature that have attracted the attention of researchers and orientalists. One of the most important parts of this literature, is Qawls that have been sung by Qawwals, a religious-social classes, in their celebrations and gatherings. Many of these Qawlls, are related to yezidi's mythology, especially a symbolic expression of the myth of creation.
This study is based on the descriptive analysis method by using library research and studying the mythical elements constituting the myth. Through these elements, the structure of the myth will be explained. This research attempts to answer the following questions: on what structures is the myth in Yezidism based? Which types of mythology are the mythical elements of Qawlls associated with? The examples in this study are from these books: the Yezidis sacred books by Isya Joseph; and the pages of the Yezidi religious literature collected by Khalil Jindi Rasho.
Yezidis have two sacred books named Al-Jilwah and Mushaf-Rash. Apart from these, they have a very rich oral literature that includes their beliefs, traditions, and legends. Jindi Rasho divided Yezidi religious literature into eight sections: myth and legend, prayers and amulets, Qawlls and Beyts, Misaahabat, religious music, Qasidah, Xizîmok and Parîzok, and Gharîbî.
In Yezidis Qawlls and in their sacred books, there are some elements that recurred in most hymns, such as: the pearl (=Dorr), sea (=Bahr), Kherqah, Markab, the bull, and fish. These are the most important repeated elements in Yezidis religious Qawlls. These elements, have mythical motifs that recurred in Qawlls, hymns, and Yezidi religious literature.
Dorr, is always known as a “sign of power and faith and beauty” (De Beaucorps, 2013, p. 132) while it is a sign of the moon, water, femininity, and possess properties of generation (lbd: 133). Thus, in Yezidi’s religious Qawlls, two elements (Dorr and Bahr) usually come together. These texts implicated how the world is created from the Dorr and how the world is established on the some elements such as Dorr and gradually expanded consequently. Mythical elements Dorr or pearls are highlighted in Yezidi's sacred texts, especially the Mushaf-Rash while these elements are the most important elements in the Yezidi's myth of creation.
To state the case in brief, water symbolizes the whole of potentiality; it is fons et origo, the source of all possible existence. “Water, thou art the source of all things and of all existence! ... Principle of what is s formless and potential, basis of every cosmic manifestation, container of all seeds, water symbolizes the primal substance from which all forms come and to which they will return either by their own regression or in a cataclysm. It existed at the beginning and returns at the end of every cosmic or historic cycle; it will always exist, though never alone, for water is always germbative, containing the potentiality of all forms in their unbroken unity. In cosmogony, in myth, ritual and iconography, water fills the same function in whatever type of cultural pattern we find it; it precedes all forms and upholds all creation. Immersion in water symbolizes a return to the pre-formal, a total regeneration, a new birth, for immersion means a dissolution of forms, a reintegration into the formlessness of pre-existence ; and emerging from the water is a repetition of the act of creation in which form was first expressed.” (Eliade, 2011, p. 189)
Clothing, represents "the economic and political attitudes, social and cultural functions, religious and philosophical beliefs and official commitments" of a nation or religious sect. (Cox and Turner, 1391, p. 6). The role of clothing is clearly shown in the Yezidi's sacred books and their religious poems in the form of sanctity of Kharqah. Almost certainly, this sanctity is indebted to the influence of the ideas of Sufi Sheikh Adi and the beliefs of the sect, respectively. In the Yezidi's Qawlls, Kharaqah is a sacred object and was created in eternity by Sheikh Adi. Sultan Yazid, has helped Sheikh Adi in the creation process. Based on Sabaqs, Sheikh Adi creates crown, Hilla, and Kharqah from Dorr. The element of Kharqah is repeatedly mentioned in Mushaf-Rash and a few Qawlls related to creation. It is one of the first creations of the Heptagon. In mythology, some of the gods ride on his Markab (=cart) to have a journey. In most cases, the sky is the location of their journey. Mushaf-Rash says that the Lord rides on Markab: "Then He created Gabriel in the form of a bird and sent him to the four corners. Also, creates a Markab and landed thirty thousand years on it. After this, he was stationed in the Lalesh Mountain. » (Isya, 1919, p. 37)
The term of Markab in Yazidis’ Qawlls, as well as in the text of Mushaf-Rash, is repeatedly used for the accession of the Lord and his followers.
“Dragons, snakes, shell-fish, dolphins, fish, and so on are the emblems of water hidden in the depths of the ocean, they are infused with the sacred power of the abyss ; lying quietly in lakes or swimming across rivers, they bring rain, moisture, and floods, thus governing the fertility of the world. (Eliade, 2011, p. 204-205). “In Indic mythology, fish was considered as a first manifestation of Vishnu who saves life from destruction” (Dadvar and Mansoori, 2012, p.195). “In Iranian mythology, in a battle between two forces, Jupiter and evil, toad, as a harmful being attacked on fish” (Bahar, 2008, p. 95). These two elements are repeatedly mentioned in many Qawlls, though the sacred books are mostly to be ignored.
In the mythological elements that were recorded in Yezidi's hymns regarding the creation, it turns out that most of these elements pointed to the topic of the earth, woman, and fertility. Bull as a sacred element is not mentioned in Yezidi sacred books, which has been considered as the the symbol of the gods of the sky. Although "Kharqah", is stead as a numinous being in the Yezidi's texts, it has got no creative role. In addition, according to the content of the texts, it represents the effect of Sufism and Islamic mysticism. The term Markab is also related to the God of sky. In their mythology, Dorr is the key element of creation from which all the other sacred elements as well as the entire universe are created. Dorr, has the fertility property and is a sign of moon and water; hence, in religious texts, Bahr and Dorr are always coming together. In the mythology of origin, water is the first being while it is above all the other elements. Water, always in mystical rituals, is the key element being associated with beliefs such as baptism and regeneration. Therefore, a strong emphasis is placed on water in the Yezidi's myth of creation which is based on beliefs such as reincarnation, mysterious, and storm. The element of Bull in the main Yezidi ceremony, is related to a sacred marriage being associated with the issue of earth and woman. Fish, is a sign of water and holy power causing rain and fertility in the world. The hymns related to the myth of creation in the Yezidi religion, are singed in any phase of creation, including birth, celebration of the New Year, Al-Jmayiah ceremony. The hymns related to the myth of creation in the Yezidi religion, are singed in any phase of creation, including birth, celebration of the new year, Al-Jmayiah ceremony, and any other sort of rituals in which birth and new creation is expected to occur based on the original model, or the form of the sacred creation.