سعدی منسوب به کیست، «سعد بن ابی بکر» یا «سعد بن زنگی»؟

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی.

نویسنده

دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

این که سعدی منسوب به کدام «سعد» است هنوز به طور قطع معلوم نشده است. گروهی او را منسوب به «سعد بن زنگی» و گروهی او را منسوب به «سعد بن ابیبکر» دانستهاند. غالب محققان معاصر جزو گروه اخیرند. نوشتار حاضر به منظور تشخیص همین امر با استفاده از منابع مربوط و عمدتاً آثار سعدی به تحقیق در این مسئله پرداخته است. یافته‌های تحقیق به این شرح است: یک مورد از همنشینی سعدی با «سعد بن زنگی» و این که سعدی او را نصیحت کرده در آثار سعدی به ‌دست آمده که همین مورد به تنهایی انتساب سعدی به «سعد بن زنگی» را تأیید و انتساب او به «سعد بن ابیبکر» را منتفی میسازد. همچنین شواهد گوناگونی از آثار سعدی استخراج گردیده دال بر این که سعدی سال‌ها قبل از بازگشت به شیراز و ملازمت درگاه «ابوبکر بن سعد» و پسرش «سعد بن ابی‌بکر» و سال‌ها قبل از سرودن بوستان و تصنیف گلستان، به «سعدی» معروف بوده و مردم او را به «سعدی» می‌شناخته‌اند. اینها نیز انتساب سعدی به «سعد بن ابی‌بکر» را منتفی می‌سازد. در این نوشتار رأی و دلایل کسانی که معتقدند سعدی منسوب به «سعد بن ابیبکر» است نقد و تحلیل شده و نادرستیِ آن نشان داده شده است. می‌توان نتیجه ‌گرفت سعدی که بر اساس مدارک و شواهد ارائه شده در این نوشتار منسوب به «سعد بن زنگی» است و دوران او را به خوبی درک کرده است نه در اوایل قرن هفتم بلکه در سه دهة آخر قرن ششم متولد‌ شده‌ است. معلوم‌ شدن زمان حدودیِ تولد سعدی، برخی ابهامات موجود در نوشته‌هایش را روشن‌ می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Saʿdī attributed to whom: "Sa'ad bin Abu Bakr" or " Sa'd bin Zangi"?

نویسنده [English]

  • Loghman Mahmodpour
Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
Some scholars believe that Sa'di is attributed to "Sa'd bin Zangi", a local Atabeg (prince). "Mirkhand", "Azar", and "Hedayat" are among them (Safa, 1993: 3rd volume: 1/589). Another group of scholars attributed him to Sa'd bin Abubakr, who died in 658 A.H; Few of the past and most contemporary scholars such as Qazvini, Bahar, Iqbal Ashtiani, and Jan Ripka are in this category. (Hasanli, 2001: 207 & 389). Muhit Tabatabai associated him to Sa'd ibn'Abadah. (Zikr e Jameel Saadi, 1990: 194).It should be noted that neither Saadi's works nor historical facts confirm Tabatabai view.
2. Research method
This article is written in an analytical and inferential manner using relevant library and specialized resources. The main sources of this article are Saadi's works, since his works have the most accurate and precise information on the subject. The statements and writings of others on the issues raised in this regard have been quoted and verified reasonably.
3. Discussion
Those who believe that Saʿdī took his name from the name of a local Atabeg (prince), Saʿd Ibn Zangī have no definite and convincing reasons and quoted from the past, without any explanations. Some of the contemporaries have some reasons to confirm their views. They consider it unlikely that Saʿdī has lived a long life so that he can understand Sa'd bin Zangi. But this idea is merely a conjecture without reason, and it is not verifiable, since in Saʿdī works, many long- lived people have been referred to, and Sa'di has seen some of them, and is not unlikely and impossible that he himself was one of them. But without knowing the date of his birth and death, one cannot say with certainty that Saʿdī lived a long life.
This group of scholars also refers to a Qasida (“Odes”) in Gulistān:
O you who sleep as 50 [years] pass, can you seize these five days?”
Gulistan was composed in 1258, and by referring to " O you who sleep as 50 [years] pass " Sa'di's birthdate was in 1208, and therefore he was not contemporary to Sa'd bin Zangi. But their inferences and deductions are not correct because according to other evidence presented in the works of Sa'di, it turns out that the "fifty" is an antonomasia.
Contemporaries also believe that in Sa'di's works there are no indications that Sa'di was associated with Sa'd bin Zangi, but, contrary to their imagination, Saadi said in a Qasida that he had advised Sa'd bin Zangi. In a verse (epic metre) from the aforementioned Qasida, in which "Sa'd Ibn Abi Bakr" is praised, Sa'di says:
Listen attentively to the admonition I've given to your ancestor / because I die, but my words are lasting
This verse has been addressed to "Sa'd Ibn Abi Bakr" Grandson of Sa'd bin Zangi, and "Saad bin Zangi" is also the "ancestor" of" Sa'd Ibn Abi Bakr "; therefore, this verse explicitly implies Sa'di's presence in the court of Sa'd bin Zangi. There is no uncertainty about Saʿdi’s pen name; it serves as his signature (takalloṣ)in all of his sonnets (ḡazal, q.v.) and appears repeatedly elsewhere in his work, years before returning to Shiraz and attending the court of "Abi Bakr bin Sa'ad" and his son " Sa'd Ibn Abi Bakr "
Saadi, in Gulistan, narrates that:
"I saw a merchant in the island of Kish. He entertained me in his apartment, and during the whole night didn’t cease talking foolishly, finally being quite exhausted he said "o Sadi say also something of you have seen and heard."
As mentioned above, the merchant explicitly calls him "Sa'dia" and "o sadi". (See: Sa'di: 1990 pp. 109 & 112). In another anecdote, he narrates his story when he was a young jurisprudent, and in that part, we also find that others identifying him as "Sa'di" and calling him as "Sa'di". (Sadi, 1990: 301 - 303). That time Sa'd bin Abbakr didn’t exist.
Sa'di, in one of his sonnets (Saadi, 1990: 556), says:
Another time Sa'di you decided to leave home/why are you escaping from Turk to Qaan.
This verse which was sung in 639, proves that Sa'di owned his signature (takalloṣ) many years before compiling Bustan in 655 A.H. (1256 A.D.) (16 years before Bustan and 15 years before returning to Shiraz and presence in the court of Sa'd bin Abi bakr)
The main name of Qaan, who was called by Sa'di is Ogta Qa'an, and Qa'an absolutely refers to him. He was the third son of Genghis Khan Mongol, who ruled From 626 to 639 (A.H). He ruled and died in his last year of ruling. (See: Iqbal, 2007: 135, 148)
Sa'd Ibn Abi bakr was living in the Developmental Age at that time (639 A.H). This verse may have been written in any of the years 626 to 639 A.H. Sa'di also has written some odes in which he explicitly implies that he was known as Sa'di years before returning to Shiraz and even leaving Shiraz. He has an ode "In the Description of Shiraz", composed before returning to Shiraz, by his signature (takalloṣ) "Sa'di". He says (Saadi, 1990,p: 726):
Happily I see the dawn again in Shiraz, Allho Akbar
Sa'di continuously talked about Shiraz considering him a superior city in comparison to others.
In another ode, Sa'di on the occasion of his return to Shiraz says: (Sa'di 1990, p,714):
Sa'di who had gone by foot and returned with complete passionate while he was Mufti of lovers.
This sentence with the words: "Sa'di", "went" and "returned back" indicate that his signature was " Sa'di " before leaving Shiraz. Sa'di has another ode on "In Praise of Abu Bakr bin Sa'd", in which he narrates his departure from Shiraz in an unsettled situation caused by the war, and his return to that city after the compromise of "Abu Bakr bin Sa'd" with Moguls. When he reappeared in his hometown Shiraz, was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Surprisingly, he asks how this has happened? And hears that this has all happened because of Abu Bakr bin Sa'd's good deeds."
I asked when this country became calm someone told who distressed you are Sa'di
It was such as you saw first, full of distress and confusion
This (peace) happened at the time of Sultan Adel Atabak Abobakr bin Sa'ad Zangi
In this poem, others have called him Sa'di. Just then Sa'di was shown great respect by the ruler and held to be among the greats of the province.
4. Conclusion
Based on the present paper, in which Sa'di was attributed to Saad ibn Zangi, Saadi's birth date was not in the early seventh century between 600 and 606 A.H, he was born in the last third decades of the 6th century (A.H). Determining the clearer and more precise date of Saadi's birth requires a separate investigation. The fact that Sa'di was born not in the early seventh century but before that, transforms our image of Sa'di; because contemporary researchers, due to Saadi's vague time of birth, were forced to justify his remarks, to be consistent with their recognitions and comments. Even some scholars have accused him of forging anecdotes. Sa'di's assignment to Sa'd bin Zangi is consistent with Saadi's remarks and sayings, and some of his anecdotes can no longer be justified or treated as fake ones. This makes Saadi's birthdate clearer and, in total, reveals real and more acurate information about him.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Saadi Pen name
  • Companion
  • Sa'd ibn Zangi
  • Saad bin bibakr
آرین‌پور، یحیی. (1379). از نیما تا روزگار ما. تهران: زوّار.
ابن الفُوَطی، ابوالفضل عبدالرزاق. (1416 ه.). مجمع الآداب فی معجم الالقاب. تحقیق: محمد الکاظم. 6جلد. چاپ اول. تهران: سازمان چاپ وانتشارات وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی.
اقبال آشتیانی، عباس. (1386). تاریخ مغول و اوایل ایّام تیموری. تهران: نامک.
بویل، جی. آ. (1385). تاریخ ایران کیمبریج «از آمدن سلجوقیان تا فروپاشی ایلخانان». جلد پنجم. ترجمۀ حسن انوشه. تهران: امیرکبیر.
بهار، محمد‌تقی. (1369). سبک‌شناسی. تهران: امیرکبیر.
پیرنیا، حسن و اقبال آشتیانی، عباس و همکاران. (1380). تاریخ ایران. تهران: نامک.
جوینی، محمد. (1382). تاریخ جهانگشای جوینی. تصحیح علامه محمد قزوینی. تهران: دنیای کتاب.
حسن‌لی، کاووس. (1380). فرهنگ سعدی‌پژوهی. شیراز: بنیاد فارس‌شناسی.
خزائلی، محمد. (1366). شرح گلستان. تهران: جاویدان.
ریپکا، یان و دیگران. (1381)، تاریخ ادبیات ایران. ترجمۀ عیسی شهابی. تهران: علمی و فرهنگی.
زرین کوب، عبدالحسین. (1379). با کاروان حلّه. تهران: علمی.
سعدی، مصلح الدین. (1368). گلستان. تصحیح و توضیح غلامحسین یوسفی. تهران: خوارزمی.
سعدی، مصلح الدین. (1369). بوستان سعدی. تصحیح و توضیح غلامحسین یوسفی. تهران: خوارزمی
سعدی، مصلح الدین. (1369). کلیات سعدی. به اهتمام محمدعلی فروغی. تهران: امیرکبیر.
سعدی، مصلح الدین. (1381). بوستان سعدی. شرح و گزارش از دکتر رضا انزابی‌نژاد و دکتر سعید قره‌بگلو. تهران: جامی
شبانکاره‌ای، محمد بن علی. (1376). مجمع الانساب. تصحیح میر هاشم محدث. تهران: امیرکبیر.
شریفی، محمد. (1387). فرهنگ ادبیات فارسی. چاپ دوم. تهران: فرهنگ نشر نو ـ معین.
صفا، ذبیح الله. (1372). تاریخ ادبیات در ایران. تهران: فردوس.
صفا، ذبیح الله. (1381). تاریخ ادبیات ایران. تلخیص از دکتر محمد ترابی. تهران: فردوس.
قریب، عبدالعظیم. (1384). بوستان سعدی. شرح ابیات از دکتر یحیی قریب. تهران: روزبهان.
مستوفی، عبدالله. (1381). تاریخ گزیده. به اهتمام دکتر عبدالحسین نوائی. تهران: امیرکبیر.
هورن، پل. (1381). تاریخ مختصر ایران از آغاز اسلام تا آغاز پهلوی. ترجمۀ صادق رضازاده شفق. تهران: علمی و فرهنگی.