اسکاز در داستان های ذهنِ حسین سناپور

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی.

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

اسکاز یکی از پدیدارهای­ هتروگلاسیا است که منجر به حضور صدای دیگری در گفتمان ‌هایِ ترکیبی آزاد غیرمستقیم و هتروگلاسیا در داستان می­شود. اسکاز به دو دستۀ زینتی و هدفمند یا توصیف ‌کننده تقسیم می­شود که نوع اول ممکن است به صورت کلی باشد و همۀ ویژگی­های اجتماعی و عرف ­پسندی زبان و صدای دیگری را از دست بدهد و تنها یک آوا در آن به گوش برسد. در نوع دوم، شیوۀ کلامی شخص دیگر به عنوان دیدگاه و موضعی برای پیش­برد داستان به­ کار می­رود. ویژگی­های اسکازی به طور کلی به دو دستۀ ساختاری و محتوایی تقسیم می­شوند. در این جستار با بررسی آثار حسین سناپور، ویژگی­های اسکازی در داستان­های ذهن او که هفت ویژگی ساختاری و چهار ویژگی محتوایی است، به چشم می­خورد. ویژگی­های ساختاری عبارتند از: انعطاف ‌ها (جابه ­جایی اجزا)، حذف­ ها، تک­ واژه ­ها، تکرارها، واژگان خاص و اصطلاحات و تکیه­کلام ­ها، صفات جانشین اسم، آواها و نام­آواها و ویژگی­های محتوایی عبارتند از: عدم سانسور، محدودیت افق فکری، شاعرانگی و ابهام زبان. از میان ویژگی­های ساختاری، انعطاف ­ها و حذف­ ها پرکاربرد هستند و از میان ویژگی­های محتوایی، محدودیت افق فکری و شاعرانگی به دلیل حضور صدای دیگری در بخش­هایی از داستان به جای حضور راوی و تشبیهات و توصیفات فراوان، دارای بسامد بالایی هستند. کارکردهای اسکاز عبارتند از بسطِ گستره ذهن، انتقال حجم بیشتر اطلاعات توأم با تسریع در آن، امکان ترسیم و انعکاس روحیات و خلقیات شخصیت‌ ها، برجسته کردن نگرش، باورپذیری و ایجاد توهم حضور در فضای ذهن در خواننده.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Skaz in the Mind Stories of Hossein Sanapour

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahshid nikfar
  • Samira Bameshki
  • Mohamad Javad Mahdavy
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Skaz is one of the phenomena of heteroglossia, which leads to the presence of other voice in hybrid discourses; discourse free indirect and heteroglossia in the story. Skaz is divided into ornamental and purposeful or characterizing categories. The first type may be generic, and loses all social and customary features of the language and other voice, and only one voice will be heard. In the second type, the verbal style of another person is used as a point of view and situation for the advancement of the story. Seven specific features have been described for characterizing and purposeful Skaz: namely •narrative •the limitation of intellectual horizons; •duality; •verbal content; •abruptness •spontaneity and speech Skaz features are generally divided into structural and semantic categories.

Methodology

This study is based on descriptive analysis method using library research and studying the characteristics and structure of Skaz in the works of Sanapour. Accordingly, the intention is to determine what Skaz's functions are in his work. Since Skaz has been only studied in theoretical fields as a heteroglassic phenomenon, its’ features and functions have not been explicitly investigated in particular works. Hence this paper aims to create various works of Hossein Sanapour in the field of stream of consciousness, searching for Skaz in his works, examining and analyzing the structural and content properties of Skaz and its functioning in his stories of mind.
 
 

Discussion

Heteroglossia is a very effective way of expressing mind, which may appear in a variety of ways and styles in a story, which includes stylistics, parody, Skaz, and speaking (written verbal conversation). The term "hybrid discourse" is a term used by Bakhtin and is a combination of two social languages within the boundaries of a single word, a confrontation within the realm of a word, between two different language consciousnesses separated from one another by a period, a social distinction or with another component defines. He also described the discourse that is characterized by its syntactic markers and a single speaker, but actually describes the combination of two words, two modes of speech, two styles, two languages, two syntactic systems, and moral beliefs. In this definition there are two phenomena. One is an indirect free speech, with all its difficulties, which leads to the combination of narrative and personality discourse, and the other is heteroglossia, which is a combination of social words that reflect the society of the story. It is the process through which the function of hybrid discourse shows itself in its higher level in texts. In fact, Bakhtin, the presence of another voice in the story, is the product of the combination of the narrator's voice and personality in the combined discourse, which Skaz plays in its formation.
 Skaz narrative (from Russian Skaz, 'speech') is a literary form that represents an oral (or 'conversational') story-telling situation in which a speaker tells a story to a present audience. Apart from having a distinctly oral diction and syntax, a Skaz-narrator's discourse is also characterized by a high incidence of phatic and appellative elements, signaling the presence of the listening audience. Skaz is closely related (and usefully compared to) the poetic genre of the 'dramatic monologue'. (Not all Skaz narratives are necessarily homodiegetic ones, however).  
According to what Bakhtin suggests, there are two kinds of Skaz; the first type is the ornamental Skaz, which may be pure and in the form of narrative, loses the social and customary features of the language and the other voice, and in direct reference to the author It turns out to be just one voice, like Turgenev's works. The second type is the purposeful or descriptive Skaz and serves to express the individual and social characteristics of someone else's alien and another vocation. In this way, the author uses the other's verbal approach as a point of view, which is essential for the advancement of the story. Like the Belkin's Stories by Pushkin's.
Seven specific features have been described for characterizing a purposeful Skaz, •namely, narrative, the limitation of intellectual horizons, duality, verbal content, abruptness, spontaneity, and speech. According to these features, Skaz must necessarily be in a narrative text, not in a text that is specific to the person's external narration. It also highlights the intellectual distance between the narrator and the personality that is ordinary and unprofessional, and thus creates bilingualism in the text. Oral and non-use features of the official and written discourse and, consequently, the use of the rules and coordinates of the spoken language to contribute to the formation and tangibility of other voice. Ultimately, the spatial presence of a speaker in which he responds to the listener and, based on the prediction of his questions, responds to the tension between him and the audience, is in accordance with the requirements of a purposeful Skaz. It should be noted that if all of these features were not in Skaz, then the first three features are required.
Since everything in the human mind's pre-speech stage, such as perceptual perceptions, emotions, thoughts, and many other aspects, is in itself non-verbal, the writer has to put these elements in equivalence Verbal (oral discourse), which, for the sake of similarity to the processes and functions of the mind, mostly has unscrupulous features and linguistic and structural normalization that expresses the Skaz nature and their conversation; in fact, Skaz with style synthesis in the discourse aims to highlight and transfer the attitude and voice in the story of the mind. Skaz has features and functions. In this essay, by investigating the works of Hossein Sanapour, the features of Skaz in his stories, which have seven structural features and four semantic characteristics, are in the look.

Conclusion

Skaz in the works of Hossein Sanapour has seven structural features which include: flexibilities (components moving), deletions, single words, repetitions, specific vocabularies, terms and habitual phrases, successor adjectives, vocabulary, and phones while onomatopoeias semantic characteristics includes: uncensored, restrictedness  of intellectual horizons, poetical language  and ambiguity. Among the structural features, flexibility and deletion are widely used and among the semantic characteristics, the restrictedness of intellectual horizons and poetic language due to the presence of other voices in parts of the story rather than the presence of narrator and abundant and descriptions have high. The functions of the Skaz include extension of the scope of the mind, the transfer of greater volume of information together with acceleration, the possibility of drawing and reflecting the spirits and personality characters, highlighting the attitude, belief, and illusion of presence of reader in the minds of characters. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • skaz
  • Story
  • Mind
  • heteroglossia
  • sanapoor
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