عنوان مقاله [English]
Ghaznavis were influenced directly by Iranian culture because of being brought up in Iran. They celebrated Nowruz and Mehregan celebrations with the same ceremonial and rituals as original Iranian did. They learned their principles of military and warfare like having body guards, tailor in the protective guard equipment, etc. Although Samanids themselves were influenced by Sassanid dynasty’s techniques, undoubtedly, Bayhaqi, as a tactician minister who was completely familiar with Iranian culture, was effective in making Ghaznavids known with the Iranian culture. Therefore, the reflection of ancient Iranian culture in the book of Bayhaqi's History is not very surprising. In this book, there are some cases of cultural influences and commonalities during this period, which clearly shows the study and reflection of Bayhaqi in the ancients’ books, including Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, Altaj Jahiz, Adab Saghir, and Adab kabir by Ibn Muqaffa. He tells about Ibn Muqaffa and confesses that he has read his books. In this research, the cultural components reflected in Ancient Iran in Bayhaqi’s history is studied by referring to resources like Bayhaqi's history.
This article is written in descriptive-analytical way and based on library and first-hand sources, especially the Bayhaqi History book. This research aims to answer what the cultural components reflected in Ancient Iran are in the history of Bayhaqi. The research findings showed that more than twelve cases of the Iranian cultural components are influenced by the book of history.
Bayhaqi expresses a great deal of history, culture, and politics of the ancestors in his book, which cannot be included in this context. In this research, we have studied twelve Iranian cultural components that have been reflected in Bayhaqi history. One of the cultural components reflected in the history of Bayhaqi is description of Nowruz and Mehregan celebrations with the same rituals. And also in this book, the idea of the divine authority of the monarchy, Farah Izadi and conformity of the king Adel Farhmand are clearly reflected. Moreover, Massoud Ghaznavi's military training style, and his hunting practices reflect the traditions of the ancient Iranian, especially Cyrus Hakhamaneshi and Bahram Gōr. The companionship of the Sultan with the wise men who were named in the history of Bayhaqi also reflects the wisdom pennies of Ardeshir Babakan, Bahram Gōr, Bozorgmehr and Kosrow Anushirvan about meetings of king with wise men. In addition, in history of Bayhaqi, love and passion of Massoud Ghaznavi for pleasure and hunting is a reflection of the desire of Bahram Gōr to the same things. As it is mentioned in Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, Rostam Dasan held feast and served drink after every war, in the history of Bayhaqi after every war, Mas'ud Ghaznavi did the same. Moreover, in the history of Bayhaqi, the tradition named ‘bread and salt’ had been mentioned and it is declared that bread and salt is one of the original Persian traditions that Iranian pilgrims and young men adhered to.
The persistence of Iranian culture is one of the most resonant topics that has always occupied the researchers’ minds. In this regard, many elites and many scholars have been diligent, and not only did they keep Iran's culture, but they have also transmitted it to the other periods. Abo al-Fazl Bayhaqi is one of these elites who has been keen on preserving and transferring Iranian culture to other periods in such a way that many cultural components of Iranians and Iranian thought are reflected in the Book of Baihaqi History. Followings are the cultural and political components reflected in Bayhaqi's book. 1. Iranians believed in the status of divine monarchy, given to Ahoura Mazda by the king, and also, in the history of Bayhaqi, he was called the monarchy of God. 2. Ancient Iranians believed in the existence of an idealistic Farahmand king that a Gloria had a hallo of light around his head and was the cause of the victory of the king in the wars; in Bayhaqi's history, Mahmoud and Massoud were referred as the kings of Farahmand, such as Sunshine. 3. In the Iranian thought, the king could have a Gloria until he was a judge and not oppressor; otherwise, the king’s Gloria would be separated from him and must fight against him; in the history of Bayhaqi, until the king is impartial, he has the right and we must obey him, otherwise we should rise against him. 4. In ancient Iran, the judiciary of kings, especially Ardeshir Babakan and Kosrow Anoushirovan, were considered as the ideal kings of justice, which were the example of others. And also in Bayhaqi's history, Ardeshir of Babakan is mentioned as an example of the justice of the kings and Kosrow Anoushiravan as a righteous king. 5. In ancient Persia, the kings chose wise and scholar companions and believed that the wise companion exalted the spirit and the wise minister should remind him of the defect of the king; in the history of Bayhaqi, the role of a wise companion in the transcendence of the soul is mentioned and the defect of the sultan has been pointed out. 6. Anniversary, music and celebrations in ancient Persians' thinking were a ritual and traditional theme that the kings of Iran paid greatly, and the same thing was reflected in Bayhaqi's history. 7. The national festivals of Nowruz and Mehregan were important for kings of ancient Iran and they were offered gifts during that time; in the history of Bayhaqi, the Ghaznavid Sultans held the same style. 8. In ancient Persia, on the Mehregan Day, the kings wore a crown which reflected the light of sun. In the history of Bayhaqi, Mas'ud Ghaznavi also wore a crown which reflected the light of sun, during the celebration of the Mahregan. 9. In ancient Persia, there was a costume that the tribes would give the king the best product of their land, including clothes, jewelry, and animals, and in the history of Bayhaqi, the tribes bestowed their best production of their lands as gifts to the Sultan. 10. In ancient Iran, the king was regarded as the king of predators, and in the childhood they learned special training for hunting to become strong in the battle; in the history of Bayhaqi, the training of Massoud Ghaznavi in hunting and killing his lion is applicable to the stories of Cyrus and Bahram Gōr. Moreover, the tradition of special hunting practices such as the abandon of killing lions in front of a king were reflected precisely in history of Bayhaqi. 11. Army in ancient Persia has various nationalities with stained flags. In the history of Bayhaqi, a multi-national army with flagged flags has been mentioned. 12. In ancient Persia and in the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the tradition of bread and salt is mentioned, and the history of Bayhaqi has also referred to this tradition.