عنوان مقاله [English]
In the sixth century, we observed a dramatic and radical transformation in the field of art, to the extent that the first sparkles of excellence and complexity in the art of the Islamic era are observed during this period. This case has also happened to the poetry, and poetic images came out of the simple shape of Khorasani style and went in to the complexity and conceptualization. This complicated process was done by the elements and tools that have been added to the image structure over the time; elements such as compound techniques or metaphor-based art.
This study is based on the statistical analysis and comparison between two groups of unique and compound literature techniques in 500 bits of poetry from nine poets of the Persian language from the sixth century to the eighth century.
The artistic literary tools (discussed in this study) in the sixth century are divided into two types; that is, by parsing the poetic images of this age, we will find two types of literary elements: (1) unique techniques including rhetorical techniques such as simile, metaphor (Explicit and Personification), metonymy, and ambiguity; (2) compound techniques which are against unique techniques and in this study are used as metonymy-based arts or compound techniques, including metonymy metaphor, amphibology metaphore metonymy, and simile amphibology metaphore metonymy. This study puts emphasis on the number and frequency of these techniques in the image of poems od poets, because the presence of unique techniques in the images (with a small difference in number) is obvious and inevitable. Therefore, this study only examines the number of three expressive elements, like simile, metaphor (explicit and makniyeh), and metonymy in the image of poems; the set of these three arts; are the unique techniques.
But in terms of looking at the images of the second type, the compound techniques, which are underlined by this study, and from the standpoint of stylistics, it is important to note that these arts are the combination of the unique and rhetorical elements of the first type. In terms of compound techniques, literary instruments of the first type that are considered as independent elements in the aesthetics and making of poetry are combined, and after this combination, they are not considered to be unique. An important point about the compound techniques is that ambiguity is in the center and other literary elements are around it; therefore, with the combination of expressive or alternative elements that are capable of being combined with the ambiguity, the new creation will be created that has been named ambiguity-based art. Thus, the case studies of ambiguity-based art in this research are metonymy metaphor, metonymy ambiguity metaphor, and simile ambiguity metonymy metaphor.
With the decomposition of the geometry of the sixth-century images, a kind of literary tools emerged that have not been revealed much before this era. These rhetorical elements are compound techniques that have an effect on the creation complexity and conceptualization of the images of Seljuk poets; this can even be seen in the poetry of Attar, whose language is simple and Khorasani. In the context of his images, the number of compound techniques is similar to the compound techniques of Nezami images and even higher Khaghani, who has a complex and Azerbaijani language. In the seventh century, poets were reluctant to take advantage of compound techniques and created complex images, and it seems that the task of transferring these literary instruments from the sixth to the eighth century is on the responsibility of Attar, and all of these elements transfer by Attar's poetry to the poets of the eighth century. In the eighth century, in contrast to the seventh century, we see natural presence and continued use of compound techniques in the creation of our images; hence, the scale of the use of these techniques in Hafez poetry reaches its highest value.